torc-s3.htm

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 1, 2019.

Registration No. 333-                

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

resTORbio, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Delaware

 

81-3305277

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification Number)

500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor

Boston, Massachusetts 02116

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

 

(857) 315-5521

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

 

 

Chen Schor

Chief Executive Officer

resTORbio, Inc.

500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor

Boston, Massachusetts 02116

(857) 315-5521

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

With copies to:

Mitchell S. Bloom, Esq.

Danielle M. Lauzon, Esq.

Goodwin Procter LLP

100 Northern Avenue

Boston, MA 02210

(617) 570-1000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

 

 


If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box:  

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

 

  

Accelerated filer

 

Non-accelerated filer

 

  

Smaller reporting company

 

 

 

 

  

Emerging growth company

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Unit(2)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price(3)

 

Amount of

Registration Fee(4)

Primary Offering:

Common Stock(5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred Stock(6)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Debt Securities(7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Warrants(8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Units(9)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Primary Offering

 

$175,000,000

 

N.A.

 

$175,000,000

 

$21,210

Secondary Offering:

Common Stock

 

$110,517,337

 

$8.88(10)

 

$110,517,337

 

$13,395(10)

Total Registration Fee

 

 

 

 

 

$285,517,337

 

$34,605

 

 

(1)

The amount to be registered consists of up to $175,000,000 of an indeterminate amount of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units. There is also being registered hereunder such currently indeterminate number of (i) shares of common stock or other securities of the registrant as may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or (ii) shares of preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or units as may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with the other securities registered hereunder.

(2)

The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per unit will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.

 

 


(3)

Estimated solely for purposes of computing the registration fee. No separate consideration will be received for (i) common stock or other securities of the registrant that may be issued upon conversion of, or in exchange for, convertible or exchangeable debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or (ii) preferred stock, common stock, debt securities or units that may be issued upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(4)

The registration fee has been calculated in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act.

(5)

Including such indeterminate amount of common stock as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(6)

Including such indeterminate amount of preferred stock as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon conversion of debt securities and/or preferred stock registered hereby, or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(7)

Including such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices or upon exercise of warrants registered hereby, as the case may be.

(8)

Including such indeterminate number of warrants or other rights, including without limitation share purchase or subscription rights, as may be issued from time to time at indeterminate prices.

(9)

Each unit will be issued under a unit agreement and will represent an interest in two or more securities, which may or may not be separable from one another.

(10)

Pursuant to Rule 457(c) of the Securities Act, the offering price and registration fee are computed based on the average high and low prices reported for the registrant’s common stock traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on January 31, 2019.

THE REGISTRANT HEREBY AMENDS THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT ON SUCH DATE OR DATES AS MAY BE NECESSARY TO DELAY ITS EFFECTIVE DATE UNTIL THE REGISTRANT SHALL FILE A FURTHER AMENDMENT WHICH SPECIFICALLY STATES THAT THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL THEREAFTER BECOME EFFECTIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 8(a) OF THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933, AS AMENDED, OR UNTIL THE REGISTRATION STATEMENT SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE ON SUCH DATE AS THE COMMISSION ACTING PURSUANT TO SAID SECTION 8(a), MAY DETERMINE.


 

 


EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains two prospectuses:

 

 

a base prospectus which covers both (a) the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $175,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time and (b) the possible offering and sale by selling stockholders from time to time of up to 12,445,646 shares of our common stock in one or more offerings, subject to market conditions and prices, liquidity objectives and other investment considerations; and

 

a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $50,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold under a Controlled Equity OfferingSM sales agreement, or the Sales Agreement, entered into with SVB Leerink LLC and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered by us pursuant to the base prospectus other than the shares under the Sales Agreement will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the Sales Agreement are specified in the sales agreement prospectus that immediately follows the base prospectus. The $50,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $175,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the Sales Agreement with SVB Leerink LLC and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., any portion of the $50,000,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the Sales Agreement, the full $175,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings by us pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.

 

 


The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION,

DATED FEBRUARY 1, 2019.

PROSPECTUS

 

$175,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

12,445,646 Shares of Common Stock

Offered by Selling Stockholders

 

 

We may from time to time issue, in one or more series or classes, up to $175,000,000 in aggregate principal amount of our common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants and/or units.

In addition, selling stockholders named in this prospectus may from time to time offer and sell up to an aggregate of 12,445,646 shares of our common stock in one or more offerings, subject to market conditions and prices, liquidity objectives and other investment considerations. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our common stock by the selling stockholders. We have borne and will continue to bear the costs relating to registration of these shares.

We may offer these securities separately or together in units. Each time we sell securities described herein, and in certain cases where one or more selling stockholders sell securities pursuant to this prospectus, we or the selling stockholders, as applicable, will provide prospective investors with a supplement to this prospectus that will specify the terms of the securities being offered. We may sell these securities to or through underwriters and also to other purchasers or through agents. We will set forth the names of any underwriters or agents, and any fees, conversions, or discount arrangements, in the accompanying prospectus supplement. We may not sell any securities under this prospectus without delivery of the applicable prospectus supplement. You should read this document and any prospectus supplement or amendment carefully before you invest in our securities.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TORC.” On January 31, 2019, the closing price for our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $8.88 per share. Our principal executive offices are located at 500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor, Boston, Massachusetts 02116.


 

 


Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus beginning on page 2 and any applicable prospectus supplement, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this Prospectus is               , 2019.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Page

 

About this Prospectus

  

1

 

 

Risk Factors

  

2

 

 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

  

3

 

 

The Company

  

5

 

 

Use of Proceeds

  

8

 

 

Securities We May Offer or That a Selling Stockholder May Offer

  

8

 

 

Description of Capital Stock

  

9

 

 

Description of Debt Securities

  

14

 

 

Description of Warrants

  

28

 

 

Description of Units

  

29

 

 

Selling Stockholders

 

32

 

 

Plan of Distribution

  

34

 

 

Legal Matters

  

37

 

 

Experts

  

37

 

 

Where You Can Find More Information

  

37

 

 

Incorporation by Reference

  

37

 

 

 


 

 

 


 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $175,000,000. In addition, the selling stockholders may from time to time sell up to an aggregate amount of 12,445,646, shares of our common stock in one or more offerings, subject to market conditions and prices, liquidity objectives and other investment considerations.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we or the selling stockholders may offer. Each time we sell securities described herein, and in certain cases where one or more selling stockholders sell securities pursuant to this prospectus, we or the selling stockholders, as applicable, will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page 37 of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in the accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “resTORbio”, “we”, “our”, “us” and “the Company” refer, collectively, to resTORbio, Inc. and, where appropriate, our subsidiary.

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks referenced below and described in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described below and in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, as amended, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference, (ii) our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018 and September 30, 2018, which are on file with the SEC and are incorporated herein by reference and (iii) other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

2

 


 

CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions, risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section “Risk Factors.”

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

our plans to develop and commercialize RTB101 alone or in combination with rapalogs, such as everolimus or sirolimus, and other product candidates for the targeted indications and patient populations, including the therapeutic potential and clinical benefits thereof;

 

our ongoing and future clinical trials for RTB101 alone or in combination with rapalogs, such as everolimus or sirolimus, whether conducted by us or by any future collaborators, including the timing of initiation of these trials and of the anticipated results;

 

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive regulatory approval;

 

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

our intellectual property position and strategy;

 

our ability to identify additional product candidates with significant commercial potential;

 

our plans to enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of product candidates;

 

the potential benefits of any future collaboration;

 

our expectations related to the use of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities;

 

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, as amended, or the JOBS Act;

 

our expected uses of the net proceeds from any offering of our securities;

 

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

the impact of government laws and regulations.

3

 


 

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business, and the markets for certain diseases, including data regarding the estimated size of those markets, and the incidence and prevalence of certain medical conditions. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances reflected in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from reports, research surveys, studies and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources.

You should read this prospectus and the documents that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. The forward-looking statements in this prospectus and the documents we incorporate by reference herein represent our views as of their respective dates. We anticipate that subsequent events and developments will cause our views to change. However, while we may elect to update these forward-looking statements at some point in the future, we have no current intention of doing so except to the extent required by applicable law. You should, therefore, not rely on these forward-looking statements as representing our views as of any date subsequent to the date of this prospectus.

 

 

4

 


 

THE COMPANY

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing a new class of innovative medicines that target the biology of aging to prevent or treat age-related diseases with the potential to extend healthy lifespan. Our lead program is selectively targeting the target of rapamycin complex 1, or TORC1, an evolutionarily conserved pathway that contributes to the decline in function of multiple organ systems. Our lead product candidate, RTB101, is an oral, selective, and potent inhibitor of TORC1. RTB101 inhibits the phosphorylation of multiple targets downstream of TORC1. Inhibition of TORC1 has been observed to extend lifespan and healthspan in aging preclinical species and to enhance immune, neurologic and cardiac functions, suggesting potential benefits in several aging-related diseases. We licensed the worldwide rights to our TORC1 program, including RTB101 alone or in combination with rapalogs, such as everolimus, sirolimus, or other mTOR inhibitors, from Novartis International Pharmaceutical Ltd. in March 2017.

The decline in immune function that occurs during aging, or immunosenescence, increases susceptibility to a variety of diseases, including respiratory tract infections, or RTIs, that significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Our initial focus is on the development of RTB101 as a first-in-class immunotherapy designed to improve immune function and thereby reduce the incidence of RTIs in the elderly regardless of the causative pathogen. Our TORC1 immunotherapy approach is supported by two randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2a and Phase 2b clinical trials enrolling more than 900 elderly subjects that provided statistically significant and clinically meaningful results. In 2018, we reported results from our exploratory dose-ranging randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2b clinical trial in 652 elderly patients at increased risk of RTI-associated morbidity and mortality defined as aged 85 and over, or 65-84 with one or more of comorbidities including: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or T2DM, or current smoker. The results from this trial demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful 30.6% reduction in the percentage of patients with one or more laboratory-confirmed RTIs, the primary endpoint of the trial, in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort. Prespecified analyses of the patient populations enrolled in the trial demonstrated (i) a statistically significant 52.1% reduction in percentage of patients with severe laboratory-confirmed RTI symptoms in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort, (ii) a statistically significant 66.7%, 68.9%, and 25.3% reduction in the prespecified endpoint of percentage patients 85 and older, 65 and older with asthma and 65 and older with T2DM, respectively, with one or more laboratory-confirmed RTIs in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort, and (iii) no reduction in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed RTIs in patients who were current smokers or with COPD in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort. The lack of efficacy observed in current smokers and patients with COPD is consistent with nonclinical data suggesting that mTOR inhibition exacerbates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation in COPD. The combination of RTB101+everolimus did not meet the primary endpoint suggesting that less TORC1 inhibition with RTB101 10 mg once daily may be more beneficial for reducing the incidence of RTIs in high risk elderly patients. We believe the collective results from our Phase 2a and Phase 2b clinical trials enrolling more than 900 elderly subjects suggest that RTB101 10 mg once daily may improve the function of the aging immune system and reduce the incidence of laboratory-confirmed RTIs in elderly patients. In our planned Phase 3 studies, we may enroll elderly subjects 65 and older, excluding current smokers and COPD patients.

Additional positive results from prespecified analyses for any infection and urinary tract infections, or UTIs, from our Phase 2b trial demonstrated (i) a statistically significant 23.6% reduction in the percentage of patients with any infection in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort, (ii) a statistically significant 74.6% reduction in the percentage of patients with one or more UTIs in the RTB101 10 mg twice daily cohort and (iii) a 34.4% reduction in the percentage of patients with one or more UTIs in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort. If not otherwise specified, we used a nominal 5% or lower p-value (p < 0.05) to define statistical significance for the clinical trials and data presented in this prospectus.

As of January 31, 2019, one family in this patent portfolio covering compositions of matter has 44 issuances in 33 countries, and is pending in six. Our issued patents and pending applications with respect to RTB101 are expected to expire in 2031 or 2032, depending on eligibility for patent term extension or supplementary protection. Additional pending applications are expected to expire between 2034 and 2037, exclusive of possible patent term adjustments or extensions.

Recent scientific findings, including those published in the scientific journals Cell, Nature and Science, suggest that aging and aging-related conditions, such as immunosenescence, may be attributable not only to random

5

 


 

cellular wear and tear, but also to specific intra-cellular signaling pathways, including the mTOR pathway. mTOR is a protein kinase that signals via two multiprotein complexes, known as TORC1 and TORC2. TORC1 inhibition has been observed to prolong lifespan, improve immune, neurologic, and cardiac function, decrease adiposity, and delay the onset of aging-related diseases in multiple animal studies. Specifically, with respect to improved immune function, TORC1 inhibition was observed in preclinical and clinical studies to rejuvenate blood, or hematopoietic stem cell function, increase infection-fighting white blood cell production, enhance rapid and independent of antigen, or innate immunity, and enhance antibody-mediated, or adaptive immunity. On the other hand, TORC2 inhibition has been observed to decrease lifespan in preclinical studies and cause unwanted side effects of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in certain animals and humans. Therefore, based on these observations and data from more than 900 patients enrolled in the Phase 2a and Phase 2b clinical trials, we believe our TORC1 program has the potential to improve the function of several aging organ systems such as immune system function and counteract immunosenescence in the elderly.

The reduced ability of elderly patients to effectively detect and fight infections is most commonly manifested in their susceptibility to RTIs and the negative effects such infections have on their overall health. RTIs are the second leading cause of hospitalization in people age 85 and over, and the fourth leading cause in people age 65 and over, contributing to high healthcare burdens and costs for the elderly population and the healthcare system that are three to five times higher than for the younger population. Furthermore, antibiotics, which are ineffective against viruses, are often prescribed indiscriminately to treat RTIs, which may cause side effects related to antibiotic use and contribute to the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance. As the elderly represent the fastest growing population in the world, we believe there is significant unmet medical need for innovative therapeutic options for reducing the incidence of RTIs by improving the function of the aging immune system.

We believe our approach to addressing RTIs in the elderly possesses several clinical and commercial advantages. Our TORC1 program offers an immunotherapy approach that has the potential to address a broad range of viral and bacterial pathogens. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in RTI incidence were observed in the Phase 2a and Phase 2b clinical trials with RTB101. We believe the risk-to-benefit ratio of our program observed in clinical studies to date would be well-suited to the elderly due to the following observations: our oral product candidates were well-tolerated in elderly subjects and none of the participants in the active treatment arms experienced a serious adverse event that was related to the study drug, and the doses being investigated in our Phase 2b clinical trial were 60 to 240 times lower than maximum tolerated doses established in prior clinical trials for other indications. Based on communications during a high-level policy meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, we believe a reduction in the incidence of RTIs has the potential to be a clinically relevant endpoint. Based on the results from our Phase 2b clinical trial with respect to reduction in RTI incidence, we plan to conduct pivotal clinical trials and to seek regulatory approval for commercialization of RTB101 in the United States, Europe and Japan. In some markets, we may collaborate with third parties for the development and commercialization of our product candidates.

Our management team includes Chen Schor, our co-founder who serves as our President and Chief Executive Officer, and Joan Mannick, M.D., our co-founder who serves as our Chief Medical Officer, Meredith Manning, who serves as our Chief Commercial Officer, and additional veterans in drug development and discovery with executive experience in leading global pharmaceutical companies. Dr. Mannick led the TORC1 clinical program at Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc. prior to our in-licensing of the program. We are supported by investors that include both private equity venture capital funds and public healthcare investment funds.

We qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. We would cease to be an emerging growth company on the date that is the earliest of: (i) the last day of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more; (ii) December 31, 2023; (iii) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in nonconvertible debt during the previous three years; or (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer under the rules of the SEC.

6

 


 

We were incorporated under the laws of the state of Delaware in July 2016 under the name resTORbio, Inc. Our principal executive offices are located at 500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor, Boston, MA 02116. Our telephone number is (857) 315-5521, and our website is located at www.restorbio.com. No portion of our website is incorporated by reference into this prospectus. We do not incorporate the information on or accessible through our website into this prospectus, and you should not consider any information on, or that can be accessed through, our website as part of this prospectus. Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TORC”.

We use various trademarks and trade names in our business, including without limitation our corporate name and logo. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus may be referred to without the ® and ™ symbols, but such references should not be construed as any indicator that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.

7

 


 

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital, capital expenditures and other general corporate purposes. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling stockholders.

SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER OR THAT A SELLING STOCKHOLDER MAY OFFER

This prospectus contains summary descriptions of the securities we may offer from time to time. These summary descriptions are not meant to be complete descriptions of each security. The particular terms of any security will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. In addition, the selling stockholders may sell from time to time up to an aggregate of 12,445,646 shares of our common stock in one or more offerings, subject to market conditions and prices, liquidity objectives and other investment considerations. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we and the selling stockholders may offer. Each time we sell securities described herein, and in certain cases where one or more selling stockholders sell securities pursuant to this prospectus, we or the selling stockholders, as applicable, will provide prospective investors with a supplement to this prospectus that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering, including the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities offered.

We or the selling stockholders may sell the securities to or through underwriters, dealers or agents, directly to purchasers or through a combination of any of these methods of sale or as otherwise set forth below under “Plan of Distribution.” We and the selling stockholders, as well as any agents acting on our or their behalf, reserve the sole right to accept and to reject in whole or in part any proposed purchase of securities. Any prospectus supplement will set forth the names of any underwriters, dealers, agents or other entities involved in the sale of securities described in that prospectus supplement and any applicable fee, commission or discount arrangements with them.

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our common stock and preferred stock, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the common stock and preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus. The following description of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and by applicable law. The terms of our common stock and preferred stock may also be affected by Delaware law.

Authorized Capital Stock

Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated.

As of January 31, 2019, 28,055,344 shares of our common stock were outstanding and held by 7 stockholders of record.

Common Stock

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. All outstanding shares are fully paid and nonassessable.

When we issue shares of common stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and nonassessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.

Undesignated Preferred Stock

Our certificate of incorporation provides for 10,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock. Our board of directors may determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock. These rights, preferences and privileges could include dividend rights, conversion rights, voting rights, terms of redemption, liquidation preferences, sinking fund terms and the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock. The issuance of our preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and the likelihood that such holders will receive dividend payments and payments upon our liquidation. The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock in one or more series and determine the number of shares in the series and its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. In addition, the issuance of preferred stock could have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company or other corporate action. When we issue shares of preferred stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and nonassessable and will not be subject to any preemptive or similar rights.

The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the

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voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Registration Rights

Pursuant to the terms of our investors’ rights agreement entered into in November 2017, certain of our stockholders are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act until the earliest of (a) January 2023, (b) the date on which such holder ceases to hold registrable securities, or (c) such holder’s registrable securities could be sold without any restriction on volume or manner of sale on any three-month period under Rule 144 or any successor rule, as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities.

Demand Registration Rights

The holders of 14,466,883 shares of our common stock, including the 12,445,646 shares of common stock to be registered pursuant to this Registration Statement, are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the investors’ rights agreement, we will be required, upon the written request of the holders of at least 20% of our outstanding registrable securities, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, to file a registration statement with respect to at least 40% of the registrable securities and use commercially reasonable efforts to effect the registration of all or a portion of their registrable securities for public resale so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of selling expenses, of at least $15.0 million. We are required to effect only two registrations pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement.

Short-Form Registration Rights

The holders of at least 10% of our outstanding registrable securities can request that we register all or part of their shares on Form S-3 if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the aggregate offering price, net of selling expenses, is at least $10.0 million. We are required to effect only two registrations in any twelve month period pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement. The right to have such shares registered on Form S-3 is further subject to other specified conditions and limitations.

Piggyback Registration Rights

Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, if we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions contained in the investors’ rights agreement, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering to the number of shares which we and the underwriters determine in our sole discretion will not jeopardize the success of the offering.

Indemnification

Our investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

Expiration of Registration Rights

The demand registration rights and short form registration rights granted under the investors’ rights agreement will terminate on the earliest of (a) January 2023, (b) the date on which such holder ceases to hold registrable

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securities, or (c) such holder’s registrable securities could be sold without any restriction on volume or manner of sale on any three-month period under Rule 144 or any successor rule, as described below.

Anti-Takeover Effects of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing another party from acquiring control of us and encouraging persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions include the items described below.

Board Composition and Filling Vacancies

Our certificate of incorporation provides for the division of our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms, with one class being elected each year. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that directors may be removed only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds or more of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Furthermore, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of our directors then in office even if less than a quorum. The classification of directors, together with the limitations on removal of directors and treatment of vacancies, has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors.

No Written Consent of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation provides that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting, and that stockholders may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting. This limit may lengthen the amount of time required to take stockholder actions and would prevent the amendment of our bylaws or removal of directors by our stockholders without holding a meeting of stockholders.

Meetings of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that only a majority of the members of our board of directors then in office may call special meetings of stockholders and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.

Advance Notice Requirements

Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of our stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. Our bylaws specify the requirements as to form and content of all stockholders’ notices. These requirements may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before the stockholders at an annual or special meeting.

Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Any amendment of our certificate of incorporation must first be approved by a majority of our board of directors, and if required by law or our certificate of incorporation, must thereafter be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment and a majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to stockholder action, board composition, limitation of liability and the amendment of our bylaws and certificate of incorporation must be approved by not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. Our bylaws may be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, subject to any limitations set forth in the bylaws;

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and may also be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, or, if our board of directors recommends that the stockholders approve the amendment, by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, in each case voting together as a single class.

Choice of Forum

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative form, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty or other wrongdoing by any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or our stockholders; (3) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this choice of forum provision. It is possible that a court of law could rule that the choice of forum provision contained in our restated certificate of incorporation is inapplicable or unenforceable if it is challenged in a proceeding or otherwise.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:

 

before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

 

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

any sale, transfer, lease, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

 

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

 

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

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Nasdaq Global Select Market Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TORC.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021, and its telephone number is (800) 962-4284.

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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The paragraphs below describe the general terms and provisions of the debt securities we may issue. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the securities in a supplement to this prospectus, including any additional covenants or changes to existing covenants relating to such series. The prospectus supplement also will indicate whether the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities. You should read the actual indenture if you do not fully understand a term or the way we use it in this prospectus.

We may offer senior or subordinated debt securities. Each series of debt securities may have different terms. The senior debt securities will be issued under one or more senior indentures, dated as of a date prior to such issuance, between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, as amended or supplemented from time to time. We will refer to any such indenture throughout this prospectus as the “senior indenture.” Any subordinated debt securities will be issued under one or more separate indentures, dated as of a date prior to such issuance, between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement, as amended or supplemented from time to time. We will refer to any such indenture throughout this prospectus as the “subordinated indenture” and to the trustee under the senior or subordinated indenture as the “trustee.” The senior indenture and the subordinated indenture are sometimes collectively referred to in this prospectus as the “indentures.” The indentures will be subject to and governed by the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended. We included copies of the forms of the indentures as exhibits to our registration statement and they are incorporated into this prospectus by reference.

If we issue debt securities at a discount from their principal amount, then, for purposes of calculating the aggregate initial offering price of the offered securities issued under this prospectus, we will include only the initial offering price of the debt securities and not the principal amount of the debt securities.

We have summarized below the material provisions of the indentures and the debt securities, or indicated which material provisions will be described in the related prospectus supplement. The prospectus supplement relating to any particular securities offered will describe the specific terms of the securities, which may be in addition to or different from the general terms summarized in this prospectus. Because the summary in this prospectus and in any prospectus supplement does not contain all of the information that you may find useful, you should read the documents relating to the securities that are described in this prospectus or in any applicable prospectus supplement. Please read “Where You Can Find More Information” to find out how you can obtain a copy of those documents. Except as otherwise indicated, the terms of the indentures are identical. As used under this caption, the term “debt securities” includes the debt securities being offered by this prospectus and all other debt securities issued by us under the indentures.

General

The indentures:

 

do not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue;

 

allow us to issue debt securities in one or more series;

 

do not require us to issue all of the debt securities of a series at the same time;

 

allow us to reopen a series to issue additional debt securities without the consent of the holders of the debt securities of such series; and

 

provide that the debt securities will be unsecured, except as may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless we give you different information in the applicable prospectus supplement, the senior debt securities will be unsubordinated obligations and will rank equally with all of our other senior unsecured and unsubordinated indebtedness. Payments on the subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the prior payment in full of all of our senior indebtedness, as described under “Description of Debt Securities—Subordination” and in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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Each indenture provides that we may, but need not, designate more than one trustee under an indenture. Any trustee under an indenture may resign or be removed and a successor trustee may be appointed to act with respect to the series of debt securities administered by the resigning or removed trustee. If two or more persons are acting as trustee with respect to different series of debt securities, each trustee shall be a trustee of a trust under the applicable indenture separate and apart from the trust administered by any other trustee. Except as otherwise indicated in this prospectus, any action described in this prospectus to be taken by each trustee may be taken by each trustee with respect to, and only with respect to, the one or more series of debt securities for which it is trustee under the applicable indenture.

The prospectus supplement for each offering will provide the following terms, where applicable:

 

the title of the debt securities and whether they are senior or subordinated;

 

the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities outstanding as of the most recent practicable date and any limit on their aggregate principal amount, including the aggregate principal amount of debt securities authorized;

 

the price at which the debt securities will be issued, expressed as a percentage of the principal and, if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof or, if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into common stock or other securities of ours or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

if convertible, the terms on which such debt securities are convertible, including the initial conversion price or rate and the conversion period and any applicable limitations on the ownership or transferability of common stock or other securities of ours received on conversion;

 

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, on which the principal of the debt securities will be payable;

 

the fixed or variable interest rate or rates of the debt securities, or the method by which the interest rate or rates is determined;

 

the date or dates, or the method for determining the date or dates, from which interest will accrue;

 

the dates on which interest will be payable;

 

the record dates for interest payment dates, or the method by which such dates will be determined;

 

the persons to whom interest will be payable;

 

the basis upon which interest will be calculated if other than that of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months;

 

any make-whole amount, which is the amount in addition to principal and interest that is required to be paid to the holder of a debt security as a result of any optional redemption or accelerated payment of such debt security, or the method for determining the make-whole amount;

 

the place or places where the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, the debt securities will be payable;

 

where the debt securities may be surrendered for registration of transfer or conversion or exchange;

 

where notices or demands to or upon us in respect of the debt securities and the applicable indenture may be served;

 

the times, prices and other terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;

 

any obligation we have to redeem, repay or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provision or at the option of holders of the debt securities, and the times and prices at which we must redeem, repay or purchase the debt securities as a result of such obligation;

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the currency or currencies in which the debt securities are denominated and payable if other than United States dollars, which may be a foreign currency or units of two or more foreign currencies or a composite currency or currencies and the terms and conditions relating thereto, and the manner of determining the equivalent of such foreign currency in United States dollars;

 

whether the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, the debt securities of the series are to be payable, at our election or at the election of a holder, in a currency or currencies other than that in which the debt securities are denominated or stated to be payable, and other related terms and conditions;

 

whether the amount of payments of principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, the debt securities may be determined according to an index, formula or other method and how such amounts will be determined;

 

whether the debt securities will be in registered form, bearer form, or both, and (i) if in registered form, the person to whom any interest shall be payable, if other than the person in whose name the security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, or (ii) if in bearer form, the manner in which, or the person to whom, any interest on the security shall be payable if otherwise than upon presentation and surrender upon maturity;

 

any restrictions applicable to the offer, sale or delivery of securities in bearer form and the terms upon which securities in bearer form of the series may be exchanged for securities in registered form of the series and vice versa, if permitted by applicable laws and regulations;

 

whether any debt securities of the series are to be issuable initially in temporary global form and whether any debt securities of the series are to be issuable in permanent global form with or without coupons and, if so, whether beneficial owners of interests in any such permanent global security may, or shall be required to, exchange their interests for other debt securities of the series, and the manner in which interest shall be paid;

 

the identity of the depositary for securities in registered form, if such series are to be issuable as a global security;

 

the date as of which any debt securities in bearer form or in temporary global form shall be dated if other than the original issuance date of the first security of the series to be issued;

 

the applicability, if any, of the defeasance and covenant defeasance provisions described in this prospectus or in the applicable indenture;

 

whether and under what circumstances we will pay any additional amounts on the debt securities in respect of any tax, assessment or governmental charge and, if so, whether we will have the option to redeem the debt securities in lieu of making such a payment;

 

whether and under what circumstances the debt securities being offered are convertible into common stock or other securities of ours, as the case may be, including the conversion price or rate and the manner or calculation thereof;

 

the circumstances, if any, specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, under which beneficial owners of interests in the global security may obtain definitive debt securities and the manner in which payments on a permanent global debt security will be made if any debt securities are issuable in temporary or permanent global form;

 

any provisions granting special rights to holders of securities upon the occurrence of such events as specified in the applicable prospectus supplement;

 

if the debt securities of such series are to be issuable in definitive form only upon receipt of certain certificates or other documents or satisfaction of other conditions, then the form and/or terms of such certificates, documents or conditions;

 

the name of the applicable trustee and the nature of any material relationship with us or any of our affiliates, and the percentage of debt securities of the class necessary to require the trustee to take action;

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any deletions from, modifications of or additions to our events of default or covenants with regard to such debt securities and any change in the right of any trustee or any of the holders to declare the principal amount of any of such debt securities due and payable;

 

applicable CUSIP numbers; and

 

any other terms of such debt securities not inconsistent with the provisions of the applicable indenture.

We may issue debt securities that provide for less than the entire principal amount thereof to be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities. We refer to any such debt securities throughout this prospectus as “original issue discount securities.” The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the United States federal income tax consequences and other relevant considerations applicable to original issue discount securities.

We also may issue indexed debt securities. Payments of principal of, and premium and interest on, indexed debt securities are determined with reference to the rate of exchange between the currency or currency unit in which the debt security is denominated and any other currency or currency unit specified by us, to the relationship between two or more currencies or currency units or by other similar methods or formulas specified in the prospectus supplement.

Except as described under “Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets” or as may be set forth in any prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that (i) would limit our ability to incur indebtedness or (ii) would afford holders of debt securities protection in the event of (a) a highly leveraged or similar transaction involving us, or (b) a change of control or reorganization, restructuring, merger or similar transaction involving us that may adversely affect the holders of the debt securities. In the future, we may enter into transactions, such as the sale of all or substantially all of our assets or a merger or consolidation, that may have an adverse effect on our ability to service our indebtedness, including the debt securities, by, among other things, substantially reducing or eliminating our assets.

Our governing instruments do not define the term “substantially all” as it relates to the sale of assets. Additionally, Delaware cases interpreting the term “substantially all” rely upon the facts and circumstances of each particular case. Consequently, to determine whether a sale of “substantially all” of our assets has occurred, a holder of debt securities must review the financial and other information that we have disclosed to the public.

We will provide you with more information in the applicable prospectus supplement regarding any deletions, modifications, or additions to the events of default or covenants that are described below, including any addition of a covenant or other provision providing event risk or similar protection.

Payment

Unless we give you different information in the applicable prospectus supplement, the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, any series of the debt securities will be payable at the corporate trust office of the trustee. We will provide you with the address of the trustee in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may also pay interest by mailing a check to the address of the person entitled to it as it appears in the applicable register for the debt securities or by wire transfer of funds to that person at an account maintained within the United States.

All monies that we pay to a paying agent or a trustee for the payment of the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, any debt security will be repaid to us if unclaimed at the end of two years after the obligation underlying payment becomes due and payable. After funds have been returned to us, the holder of the debt security may look only to us for payment, without payment of interest for the period which we hold the funds.

Denomination, Interest, Registration and Transfer

Unless otherwise described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities of any series will be issuable in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.

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Subject to the limitations imposed upon debt securities that are evidenced by a computerized entry in the records of a depository company rather than by physical delivery of a note, a holder of debt securities of any series may:

 

exchange them for any authorized denomination of other debt securities of the same series and of a like aggregate principal amount and kind upon surrender of such debt securities at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee or at the office of any transfer agent that we designate for such purpose; and

 

surrender them for registration of transfer or exchange at the corporate trust office of the applicable trustee or at the office of any transfer agent that we designate for such purpose.

Every debt security surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange must be duly endorsed or accompanied by a written instrument of transfer satisfactory to the applicable trustee or transfer agent. Payment of a service charge will not be required for any registration of transfer or exchange of any debt securities, but we or the trustee may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection therewith. If in addition to the applicable trustee, the applicable prospectus supplement refers to any transfer agent initially designated by us for any series of debt securities, we may at any time rescind the designation of any such transfer agent or approve a change in the location through which any such transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for such series. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents for any series of debt securities.

Neither we, nor any trustee, will be required to:

 

issue, register the transfer of or exchange debt securities of any series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day that the notice of redemption of any debt securities selected for redemption is mailed and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing;

 

register the transfer of or exchange any debt security, or portion thereof, so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt security being redeemed in part; and

 

issue, register the transfer of or exchange any debt security that has been surrendered for repayment at the option of the holder, except the portion, if any, of such debt security not to be so repaid.

Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets

The indentures provide that we may, without the consent of the holders of any outstanding debt securities, (i) consolidate with, (ii) sell, lease or convey all or substantially all of our assets to, or (iii) merge with or into, any other entity provided that:

 

either we are the continuing entity, or the successor entity, if other than us, assumes the obligations (a) to pay the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, all of the debt securities and (b) to duly perform and observe all of the covenants and conditions contained in each indenture;

 

after giving effect to the transaction, there is no event of default under the indentures and no event which, after notice or the lapse of time, or both, would become such an event of default, occurs and continues; and

 

an officers’ certificate and legal opinion covering such conditions are delivered to each applicable trustee.

Covenants

Existence. Except as described under “Merger, Consolidation or Sale of Assets,” the indentures require us to do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect our existence, rights and franchises. However, the indentures do not require us to preserve any right or franchise if we determine that any right or franchise is no longer desirable in the conduct of our business.

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Payment of taxes and other claims. The indentures require us to pay, discharge or cause to be paid or discharged, before they become delinquent (i) all taxes, assessments and governmental charges levied or imposed on us, and (ii) all lawful claims for labor, materials and supplies which, if unpaid, might by law become a lien upon our property. However, we will not be required to pay, discharge or cause to be paid or discharged any such tax, assessment, charge or claim whose amount, applicability or validity is being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings.

Provision of financial information. The indentures require us to (i) within 15 days of each of the respective dates by which we are required to file our annual reports, quarterly reports and other documents with the SEC, file with the trustee copies of the annual report, quarterly report and other documents that we file with the SEC under Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, (ii) file with the trustee and the SEC any additional information, documents and reports regarding compliance by us with the conditions and covenants of the indentures, as required, (iii) within 30 days after the filing with the trustee, mail to all holders of debt securities, as their names and addresses appear in the applicable register for such debt securities, without cost to such holders, summaries of any documents and reports required to be filed by us pursuant to (i) and (ii) above, and (iv) supply, promptly upon written request and payment of the reasonable cost of duplication and delivery, copies of such documents to any prospective holder.

Additional covenants. The applicable prospectus supplement will set forth any of our additional covenants relating to any series of debt securities.

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement states otherwise, when we refer to “events of default” as defined in the indentures with respect to any series of debt securities, we mean:

 

default in the payment of any installment of interest on any debt security of such series continuing for 30 days;

 

default in the payment of principal of, or any premium or make-whole amount on, any debt security of such series for five business days at its stated maturity;

 

default in making any sinking fund payment as required for any debt security of such series for five business days;

 

default in the performance or breach of any covenant or warranty in the debt securities or in the indenture by us continuing for 60 days after written notice as provided in the applicable indenture, but not of a covenant added to the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities issued thereunder other than such series;

 

a default under any bond, debenture, note, mortgage, indenture or instrument:

 

(i)

having an aggregate principal amount of at least $30,000,000; or

 

(ii)

under which there may be issued, secured or evidenced any existing or later created indebtedness for money borrowed by us, if we are directly responsible or liable as obligor or guarantor,

if the default results in the indebtedness becoming or being declared due and payable prior to the date it otherwise would have, without such indebtedness having been discharged, or such acceleration having been rescinded or annulled, within 30 days after notice to the issuing company specifying such default. Such notice shall be given to us by the trustee, or to us and the trustee by the holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series. The written notice shall specify such default and require us to cause such indebtedness to be discharged or cause such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled and shall state that such notice is a “Notice of Default” under such indenture;

 

bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, or court appointment of a receiver, liquidator or trustee of us; and

 

any other event of default provided with respect to a particular series of debt securities.

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If an event of default occurs and is continuing with respect to debt securities of any series outstanding, then the applicable trustee or the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the principal amount of all the debt securities of that series to be due and payable. If the debt securities of that series are original issue discount securities or indexed securities, then the applicable trustee or the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the debt securities of that series will have the right to declare the portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms thereof to be due and payable. However, at any time after such a declaration of acceleration has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the applicable trustee, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if:

 

we have deposited with the applicable trustee all required payments of the principal, any premium or make-whole amount, interest and, to the extent permitted by law, interest on overdue installment of interest, plus applicable fees, expenses, disbursements and advances of the applicable trustee; and

 

all events of default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal, or a specified portion thereof, and any premium or make-whole amount, have been cured or waived.

The indentures also provide that the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under the applicable indenture may, on behalf of all holders, waive any past default with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default:

 

in the payment of the principal, any premium or make-whole amount, or interest;

 

in respect of a covenant or provision contained in the applicable indenture that cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holders of the outstanding debt security that is affected by the default; or

 

in respect of a covenant or provision for the benefit or protection of the trustee, without its express written consent.

The indentures require each trustee to give notice to the holders of debt securities within 90 days of a default unless such default has been cured or waived. However, the trustee may withhold notice if specified persons of such trustee consider such withholding to be in the interest of the holders of debt securities. The trustee may not withhold notice of a default in the payment of principal, any premium or interest on any debt security of such series or in the payment of any sinking fund installment in respect of any debt security of such series.

The indentures provide that holders of debt securities of any series may not institute any proceedings, judicial or otherwise, with respect to such indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless the trustee fails to act for a period of 60 days after the trustee has received a written request to institute proceedings in respect of an event of default from the holders of 25% or more in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, as well as an offer of indemnity reasonably satisfactory to the trustee. However, this provision will not prevent any holder of debt securities from instituting suit for the enforcement of payment of the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt securities at the respective due dates thereof.

The indentures provide that, subject to provisions in each indenture relating to its duties in the case of a default, a trustee has no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers at the request or direction of any holders of any series of debt securities then outstanding under the indenture, unless the holders have offered to the trustee reasonable security or indemnity. The holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series or of all debt securities then outstanding under an indenture shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the applicable trustee, or of exercising any trust or power conferred upon such trustee. However, a trustee may refuse to follow any direction which:

 

is in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture;

 

may involve the trustee in personal liability; or

 

may be unduly prejudicial to the holders of debt securities of the series not joining the proceeding.

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Within 120 days after the close of each fiscal year, we will be required to deliver to each trustee a certificate, signed by one of our several specified officers, stating whether or not that officer has knowledge of any default under the applicable indenture. If the officer has knowledge of any default, the notice must specify the nature and status of the default.

Modification of the Indentures

The indentures provide that modifications and amendments may be made only with the consent of the affected holders of a majority in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities issued under that indenture. However, no such modification or amendment may, without the consent of the holders of the debt securities affected by the modification or amendment:

 

change the stated maturity of the principal of, or any premium or make-whole amount on, or any installment of principal of or interest on, any such debt security;

 

reduce the principal amount of, the rate or amount of interest on, or any premium or make-whole amount payable on redemption of, any such debt security;

 

reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount security that would be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof or would be provable in bankruptcy, or adversely affect any right of repayment of the holder of any such debt security;

 

change the place of payment or the coin or currency for payment of principal of, or any premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, any such debt security;

 

impair the right to institute suit for the enforcement of any payment on or with respect to any such debt security;

 

reduce the percentage in principal amount of any outstanding debt securities necessary to modify or amend the applicable indenture with respect to such debt securities, to waive compliance with particular provisions thereof or defaults and consequences thereunder or to reduce the quorum or voting requirements set forth in the applicable indenture; and

 

modify any of the foregoing provisions or any of the provisions relating to the waiver of particular past defaults or covenants, except to increase the required percentage to effect such action or to provide that some of the other provisions may not be modified or waived without the consent of the holder of such debt security.

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series may, on behalf of all holders of debt securities of that series, waive, insofar as that series is concerned, our compliance with material restrictive covenants of the applicable indenture.

We and our respective trustee may make modifications and amendments of an indenture without the consent of any holder of debt securities for any of the following purposes:

 

to evidence the succession of another person to us as obligor under such indenture;

 

to add to our covenants for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in such indenture;

 

to add events of default for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities;

 

to add or change any provisions of an indenture (i) to change or eliminate restrictions on the payment of principal of, or premium or make-whole amount, or interest on, debt securities in bearer form, or (ii) to permit or facilitate the issuance of debt securities in uncertificated form, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the debt securities of any series in any material respect;

 

to change or eliminate any provisions of an indenture, provided that any such change or elimination shall become effective only when there are no debt securities outstanding of any series created prior thereto which are entitled to the benefit of such provision;

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to secure the debt securities;

 

to establish the form or terms of debt securities of any series;

 

to provide for the acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee or facilitate the administration of the trusts under an indenture by more than one trustee;

 

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in an indenture, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of holders of debt securities of any series issued under such indenture; and

 

to supplement any of the provisions of an indenture to the extent necessary to permit or facilitate defeasance and discharge of any series of such debt securities, provided that such action shall not adversely affect the interests of the holders of the outstanding debt securities of any series.

Voting

The indentures provide that in determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding debt securities of a series have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver under the indentures or whether a quorum is present at a meeting of holders of debt securities:

 

the principal amount of an original issue discount security that shall be deemed to be outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

the principal amount of any debt security denominated in a foreign currency that shall be deemed outstanding shall be the United States dollar equivalent, determined on the issue date for such debt security, of the principal amount or, in the case of an original issue discount security, the United States dollar equivalent on the issue date of such debt security of the amount determined as provided in the preceding bullet point;

 

the principal amount of an indexed security that shall be deemed outstanding shall be the principal face amount of such indexed security at original issuance, unless otherwise provided for such indexed security under such indenture; and

 

debt securities owned by us or any other obligor upon the debt securities or by any affiliate of ours or of such other obligor shall be disregarded.

The indentures contain provisions for convening meetings of the holders of debt securities of a series. A meeting will be permitted to be called at any time by the applicable trustee, and also, upon request, by us or the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series, in any such case upon notice given as provided in such indenture. Except for any consent that must be given by the holder of each debt security affected by the modifications and amendments of an indenture described above, any resolution presented at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present may be adopted by the affirmative vote of the holders of a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series represented at such meeting.

Notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, except as referred to above, any resolution relating to a request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage, which is less than a majority of the aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, may be adopted at a meeting or adjourned meeting duly reconvened at which a quorum is present by the affirmative vote of such specified percentage.

Any resolution passed or decision taken at any properly held meeting of holders of debt securities of any series will be binding on all holders of such series. The quorum at any meeting called to adopt a resolution, and at any reconvened meeting, will be persons holding or representing a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series. However, if any action is to be taken relating to a consent or waiver which may be given by the holders of at least a specified percentage in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series, the persons holding such percentage will constitute a quorum.

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Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, the indentures provide that if any action is to be taken at a meeting with respect to any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action that such indenture expressly provides may be made, given or taken by the holders of a specified percentage in principal amount of all outstanding debt securities affected by such action, or of the holders of such series and one or more additional series:

 

there shall be no minimum quorum requirement for such meeting; and

 

the principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series that vote in favor of such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action shall be taken account in determining whether such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action has been made, given or taken under such indenture.

Subordination

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, subordinated debt securities will be subject to the following subordination provisions.

Upon any distribution to our creditors in a liquidation, dissolution or reorganization, the payment of the principal of and interest on any subordinated debt securities will be subordinated to the extent provided in the applicable indenture in right of payment to the prior payment in full of all senior debt. However, our obligation to make payments of the principal of and interest on such subordinated debt securities otherwise will not be affected. No payment of principal or interest will be permitted to be made on subordinated debt securities at any time if a default on senior debt exists that permits the holders of such senior debt to accelerate its maturity and the default is the subject of judicial proceedings or we receive notice of the default. After all senior debt is paid in full and until the subordinated debt securities are paid in full, holders of subordinated debt securities will be subrogated to the rights of holders of senior debt to the extent that distributions otherwise payable to holders of subordinated debt securities have been applied to the payment of senior debt. The subordinated indenture will not restrict the amount of senior debt or other indebtedness of ours. As a result of these subordination provisions, in the event of a distribution of assets upon insolvency, holders of subordinated debt securities may recover less, ratably, than our general creditors.

The term “senior debt” will be defined in the applicable indenture as the principal of and interest on, or substantially similar payments to be made by us in respect of, other outstanding indebtedness, whether outstanding at the date of execution of the applicable indenture or subsequently incurred, created or assumed. The prospectus supplement may include a description of additional terms implementing the subordination feature.

No restrictions will be included in any indenture relating to subordinated debt securities upon the creation of additional senior debt.

If this prospectus is being delivered in connection with the offering of a series of subordinated debt securities, the accompanying prospectus supplement or the information incorporated in this prospectus by reference will set forth the approximate amount of senior debt outstanding as of the end of our most recent fiscal quarter.

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures allow us to discharge our obligations to holders of any series of debt securities issued under any indenture when:

 

either (i) all securities of such series have already been delivered to the applicable trustee for cancellation; or (ii) all securities of such series have not already been delivered to the applicable trustee for cancellation but (a) have become due and payable, (b) will become due and payable within one year, or (c) if redeemable at our option, are to be redeemed within one year, and we have irrevocably deposited with the applicable trustee, in trust, funds in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable, an amount sufficient to pay the entire indebtedness on such debt securities in respect of principal and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest to the date of such deposit if such debt securities have become due and payable or, if they have not, to the stated maturity or redemption date;

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we have paid or caused to be paid all other sums payable; and

 

an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel stating the conditions to discharging the debt securities have been satisfied has been delivered to the trustee.

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, the indentures provide that, upon our irrevocable deposit with the applicable trustee, in trust, of an amount, in such currency or currencies, currency unit or units or composite currency or currencies in which such debt securities are payable at stated maturity, or government obligations, or both, applicable to such debt securities, which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient to pay the principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt securities, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments thereon, on the scheduled due dates therefor, the issuing company may elect either:

 

to defease and be discharged from any and all obligations with respect to such debt securities; or

 

to be released from its obligations with respect to such debt securities under the applicable indenture or, if provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, its obligations with respect to any other covenant, and any omission to comply with such obligations shall not constitute an event of default with respect to such debt securities.

Notwithstanding the above, we may not elect to defease and be discharged from the obligation to pay any additional amounts upon the occurrence of particular events of tax, assessment or governmental charge with respect to payments on such debt securities and the obligations to register the transfer or exchange of such debt securities, to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities, to maintain an office or agency in respect of such debt securities, or to hold monies for payment in trust.

The indentures only permit us to establish the trust described in the paragraph above if, among other things, we have delivered to the applicable trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of such debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of such defeasance or covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such defeasance or covenant defeasance had not occurred. Such opinion of counsel, in the case of defeasance, will be required to refer to and be based upon a ruling received from or published by the Internal Revenue Service or a change in applicable United States federal income tax law occurring after the date of the indenture. In the event of such defeasance, the holders of such debt securities would be able to look only to such trust fund for payment of principal, any premium or make-whole amount, and interest.

When we use the term “government obligations,” we mean securities that are:

 

direct obligations of the United States or the government that issued the foreign currency in which the debt securities of a particular series are payable, for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged; or

 

obligations of a person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States or other government that issued the foreign currency in which the debt securities of such series are payable, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States or such other government, which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof and shall also include a depository receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such government obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such government obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depository receipt. However, except as required by law, such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depository receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the government obligation or the specific payment of interest on or principal of the government obligation evidenced by such depository receipt.

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Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, if after we have deposited funds and/or government obligations to effect defeasance or covenant defeasance with respect to debt securities of any series, (i) the holder of a debt security of such series is entitled to, and does, elect under the terms of the applicable indenture or the terms of such debt security to receive payment in a currency, currency unit or composite currency other than that in which such deposit has been made in respect of such debt security, or (ii) a conversion event occurs in respect of the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such deposit has been made, the indebtedness represented by such debt security will be deemed to have been, and will be, fully discharged and satisfied through the payment of the principal of, and premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, such debt security as they become due out of the proceeds yielded by converting the amount so deposited in respect of such debt security into the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such debt security becomes payable as a result of such election or such cessation of usage based on the applicable market exchange rate.

When we use the term “conversion event,” we mean the cessation of use of:

 

a currency, currency unit or composite currency both by the government of the country that issued such currency and for the settlement of transactions by a central bank or other public institutions of or within the international banking community;

 

the European Currency Unit both within the European Monetary System and for the settlement of transactions by public institutions of or within the European Communities; or

 

any currency unit or composite currency other than the European Currency Unit for the purposes for which it was established.

Unless otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, all payments of principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, any debt security that is payable in a foreign currency that ceases to be used by its government of issuance shall be made in United States dollars.

In the event that (i) we effect covenant defeasance with respect to any debt securities and (ii) those debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any event of default, the amount in the currency, currency unit or composite currency in which such debt securities are payable, and government obligations on deposit with the applicable trustee, will be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of their stated maturity but may not be sufficient to pay amounts due on such debt securities at the time of the acceleration resulting from such event of default. However, the issuing company would remain liable to make payments of any amounts due at the time of acceleration.

The applicable prospectus supplement may further describe the provisions, if any, permitting such defeasance or covenant defeasance, including any modifications to the provisions described above, with respect to the debt securities of or within a particular series.

Conversion Rights

The terms and conditions, if any, upon which the debt securities are convertible into common stock or other securities of ours will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms will include whether the debt securities are convertible into shares of common stock or other securities of ours, the conversion price, or manner of calculation thereof, the conversion period, provisions as to whether conversion will be at the issuing company’s option or the option of the holders, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price and provisions affecting conversion in the event of the redemption of the debt securities and any restrictions on conversion.

Global Securities

The debt securities of a series may be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more global securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, a depository identified in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series. Global securities, if any, issued in the United States are expected to be deposited with The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, as depository. We may issue global securities in either registered or bearer form and in either temporary or permanent form. We will describe the specific terms of the depository arrangement with respect to a series of debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such series. We expect that unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, the following provisions will apply to depository arrangements.

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Once a global security is issued, the depository for such global security or its nominee will credit on its book-entry registration and transfer system the respective principal amounts of the individual debt securities represented by such global security to the accounts of participants that have accounts with such depository. Such accounts shall be designated by the underwriters, dealers or agents with respect to such debt securities or by us if we offer such debt securities directly. Ownership of beneficial interests in such global security will be limited to participants with the depository or persons that may hold interests through those participants.

We expect that, under procedures established by DTC, ownership of beneficial interests in any global security for which DTC is the depository will be shown on, and the transfer of that ownership will be effected only through, records maintained by DTC or its nominee, with respect to beneficial interests of participants with the depository, and records of participants, with respect to beneficial interests of persons who hold through participants with the depository. Neither we nor the trustee will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records of DTC or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records of DTC or any of its participants relating to beneficial ownership interests in the debt securities. The laws of some states require that certain purchasers of securities take physical delivery of such securities in definitive form. Such limits and laws may impair the ability to own, pledge or transfer beneficial interest in a global security.

So long as the depository for a global security or its nominee is the registered owner of such global security, such depository or such nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the debt securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture. Except as described below or in the applicable prospectus supplement, owners of beneficial interest in a global security will not be entitled to have any of the individual debt securities represented by such global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of any such debt securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable indenture. Beneficial owners of debt securities evidenced by a global security will not be considered the owners or holders thereof under the applicable indenture for any purpose, including with respect to the giving of any direction, instructions or approvals to the trustee under the indenture. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security with respect to which DTC is the depository must rely on the procedures of DTC and, if such person is not a participant with the depository, on the procedures of the participant through which such person owns its interests, to exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture. We understand that, under existing industry practice, if DTC requests any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action which a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, DTC would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interest to give or take such action, and such participants would authorize beneficial owners through such participants to give or take such actions or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Payments of principal of, and any premium or make-whole amount, and interest on, individual debt securities represented by a global security registered in the name of a depository or its nominee will be made to or at the direction of the depository or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security under the applicable indenture. Under the terms of the applicable indenture, we and the trustee may treat the persons in whose name debt securities, including a global security, are registered as the owners thereof for the purpose of receiving such payments. Consequently, neither we nor the trustee have or will have any responsibility or liability for the payment of such amounts to beneficial owners of debt securities including principal, any premium or make-whole amount, or interest. We believe, however, that it is currently the policy of DTC to immediately credit the accounts of relevant participants with such payments, in amounts proportionate to their respective holdings of beneficial interests in the relevant global security as shown on the records of DTC or its nominee. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in such global security held through such participants will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in street name, and will be the responsibility of such participants. Redemption notices with respect to any debt securities represented by a global security will be sent to the depository or its nominee. If less than all of the debt securities of any series are to be redeemed, we expect the depository to determine the amount of the interest of each participant in such debt securities to be redeemed to be determined by lot. Neither we, the trustee, any paying agent nor the security registrar for such debt securities will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security for such debt securities or for maintaining any records with respect thereto.

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Neither we nor the trustee will be liable for any delay by the holders of a global security or the depository in identifying the beneficial owners of debt securities, and we and the trustee may conclusively rely on, and will be protected in relying on, instructions from the holder of a global security or the depository for all purposes. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.

If a depository for any debt securities is at any time unwilling, unable or ineligible to continue as depository and we do not appoint a successor depository within 90 days, we will issue individual debt securities in exchange for the global security representing such debt securities. In addition, we may at any time and at our sole discretion, subject to any limitations described in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to such debt securities, determine not to have any of such debt securities represented by one or more global securities and in such event will issue individual debt securities in exchange for the global security or securities representing such debt securities. Individual debt securities so issued will be issued in denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000.

The debt securities of a series may also be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more bearer global securities that will be deposited with a depository, or with a nominee for such depository, identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any such bearer global securities may be issued in temporary or permanent form. The specific terms and procedures, including the specific terms of the depositary arrangement, with respect to any portion of a series of debt securities to be represented by one or more bearer global securities will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

No Recourse

There is no recourse under any obligation, covenant or agreement in the applicable indenture or with respect to any security against any of our or our successor’s past, present or future shareholders, employees, officers or directors.

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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus and the related warrant agreements and warrant certificates. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any warrants offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.

General

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities.

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we will issue under a separate warrant agreement. We will enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:

 

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

the periods during which, and places at which, the warrants are exercisable;

 

the manner of exercise;

 

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

 

the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;

 

federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units comprised of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, debt securities and warrants in any combination. We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section outlines certain provisions of the units that we may issue. If we issue units, they will be issued under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. The information described in this section may not be complete in all respects and is qualified entirely by reference to the unit agreement with respect to the units of any particular series. The specific terms of any series of units offered will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If so described in a particular supplement, the specific terms of any series of units may differ from the general description of terms presented below. We urge you to read any prospectus supplement related to any series of units we may offer, as well as the complete unit agreement and unit certificate that contain the terms of the units. If we issue units, forms of unit agreements and unit certificates relating to such units will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement, which includes this prospectus.

Each unit that we may issue will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date. The applicable prospectus supplement may describe:

 

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

any provisions of the governing unit agreement;

 

the price or prices at which such units will be issued;

 

the applicable United States federal income tax considerations relating to the units;

 

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

any other terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units.

The provisions described in this section, as well as those described under “Description of Capital Stock,” “Description of Debt Securities” and “Description of Warrants” will apply to the securities included in each unit, to the extent relevant and as may be updated in any prospectus supplements.

Issuance in Series

We may issue units in such amounts and in as many distinct series as we wish. This section summarizes terms of the units that apply generally to all series. Most of the financial and other specific terms of your series will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unit Agreements

We will issue the units under one or more unit agreements to be entered into between us and a bank or other financial institution, as unit agent. We may add, replace or terminate unit agents from time to time. We will identify the unit agreement under which each series of units will be issued and the unit agent under that agreement in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The following provisions will generally apply to all unit agreements unless otherwise stated in the applicable prospectus supplement:

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Modification without Consent

We and the applicable unit agent may amend any unit or unit agreement without the consent of any holder:

 

to cure any ambiguity, including modifying any provisions of the governing unit agreement that differ from those described below;

 

to correct or supplement any defective or inconsistent provision; or

 

to make any other change that we believe is necessary or desirable and will not adversely affect the interests of the affected holders in any material respect.

We do not need any approval to make changes that affect only units to be issued after the changes take effect. We may also make changes that do not adversely affect a particular unit in any material respect, even if they adversely affect other units in a material respect. In those cases, we do not need to obtain the approval of the holder of the unaffected unit; we need only obtain any required approvals from the holders of the affected units.

Modification with Consent

We may not amend any particular unit or a unit agreement with respect to any particular unit unless we obtain the consent of the holder of that unit, if the amendment would:

 

impair any right of the holder to exercise or enforce any right under a security included in the unit if the terms of that security require the consent of the holder to any changes that would impair the exercise or enforcement of that right; or

 

reduce the percentage of outstanding units or any series or class the consent of whose holders is required to amend that series or class, or the applicable unit agreement with respect to that series or class, as described below.

Any other change to a particular unit agreement and the units issued under that agreement would require the following approval:

 

If the change affects only the units of a particular series issued under that agreement, the change must be approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding units of that series; or

 

If the change affects the units of more than one series issued under that agreement, it must be approved by the holders of a majority of all outstanding units of all series affected by the change, with the units of all the affected series voting together as one class for this purpose.

These provisions regarding changes with majority approval also apply to changes affecting any securities issued under a unit agreement, as the governing document.

In each case, the required approval must be given by written consent.

Unit Agreements Will Not Be Qualified under Trust Indenture Act

No unit agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no unit agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of units issued under unit agreements will not have the protections of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their units.

Mergers and Similar Transactions Permitted; No Restrictive Covenants or Events of Default

The unit agreements will not restrict our ability to merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets to, another corporation or other entity or to engage in any other transactions. If at any time we merge or consolidate with, or sell our assets substantially as an entirety to, another corporation or other entity, the successor entity will succeed to and assume our obligations under the unit agreements. We will then be relieved of any further obligation under these agreements.

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The unit agreements will not include any restrictions on our ability to put liens on our assets, nor will they restrict our ability to sell our assets. The unit agreements also will not provide for any events of default or remedies upon the occurrence of any events of default.

Governing Law

The unit agreements and the units will be governed by Delaware law.

Form, Exchange and Transfer

Unless the accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, we will issue each unit in global—i.e., book-entry—form only. Units in book-entry form will be represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary, which will be the holder of all the units represented by the global security. Those who own beneficial interests in a unit will do so through participants in the depositary’s system, and the rights of these indirect owners will be governed solely by the applicable procedures of the depositary and its participants. We will describe book-entry securities, and other terms regarding the issuance and registration of the units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless the accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, each unit and all securities comprising the unit will be issued in the same form.

If we issue any units in registered, non-global form, the following will apply to them.

The units will be issued in the denominations stated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Holders may exchange their units for units of smaller denominations or combined into fewer units of larger denominations, as long as the total amount is not changed.

 

Holders may exchange or transfer their units at the office of the unit agent. Holders may also replace lost, stolen, destroyed or mutilated units at that office. We may appoint another entity to perform these functions or perform them ourselves.

 

Holders will not be required to pay a service charge to transfer or exchange their units, but they may be required to pay for any tax or other governmental charge associated with the transfer or exchange. The transfer or exchange, and any replacement, will be made only if our transfer agent is satisfied with the holder’s proof of legal ownership. The transfer agent may also require an indemnity before replacing any units.

 

If we have the right to redeem, accelerate or settle any units before their maturity, and we exercise our right as to less than all those units or other securities, we may block the exchange or transfer of those units during the period beginning 15 days before the day we mail the notice of exercise and ending on the day of that mailing, in order to freeze the list of holders to prepare the mailing. We may also refuse to register transfers of or exchange any unit selected for early settlement, except that we will continue to permit transfers and exchanges of the unsettled portion of any unit being partially settled. We may also block the transfer or exchange of any unit in this manner if the unit includes securities that are or may be selected for early settlement.

Only the depositary will be entitled to transfer or exchange a unit in global form, since it will be the sole holder of the unit.

Payments and Notices

In making payments and giving notices with respect to our units, we will follow the procedures as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

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SELLING STOCKHOLDERS

This prospectus also relates to the possible resale from time to time by the stockholders named herein, who we refer to in this prospectus as the “selling stockholders,” of up to an aggregate maximum amount of 12,445,646 shares of our common stock in one or more offerings, subject to market conditions and prices, liquidity objectives and other investment considerations. Such shares of common stock were issued and outstanding prior to the original filing date of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part. The selling stockholders originally acquired the shares of our common stock included in this prospectus through (i) our initial public offering or otherwise on the open market, and (ii) several private placements of our common stock or convertible preferred stock prior to our initial public offering, with all such shares of convertible preferred stock converted into shares of our common stock in connection with our initial public offering. Additional information about the selling stockholders, where applicable, will be set forth in an applicable prospectus supplement, documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in a free writing prospectus we file with the SEC. We will not receive any proceeds from the resale of the common stock by the selling stockholders.

The following table sets forth the information about the selling stockholders, including the number of shares of our common stock beneficially owned by such selling stockholders immediately prior to the date of this prospectus, the number of shares offered hereby and registered by the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and the number of shares of our common stock to be beneficially owned by such selling stockholders after this offering. The number of shares to be owned after this offering assumes that all shares covered by this prospectus will be sold by the selling stockholders and that no additional shares of our common stock are subsequently bought or sold by the selling stockholders. Except as otherwise disclosed herein and in the footnotes below with respect to the selling stockholder, the selling stockholder does not and within the past three years has not had, any position, office or other material relationship with us.

The information set forth below is based upon information obtained from the selling stockholder. The percentages of shares owned after the offering are based on 28,055,344 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2018, including the shares of common stock covered hereby.

 

 

 

Shares Beneficially Owned Prior to the Date of this Prospectus

 

 

Shares Subject to Sale Pursuant to

 

 

Shares Beneficially Owned After Sale of All Shares Subject to Sale Pursuant to this Prospectus(1)

 

Name

 

Number of Shares

 

 

Percent

 

 

this Prospectus

 

 

Number of Shares

 

 

Percent

 

PureTech Health LLC

 

 

9,800,396

 

(2)

34.9%

 

 

 

7,680,700

 

 

 

2,119,696

 

 

7.6%

 

OrbiMed Private Investments VI, LP

 

 

4,830,387

 

(3)

17.2%

 

 

 

4,297,054

 

 

 

533,333

 

 

1.9%

 

Quan Venture Fund I, L.P.

 

 

667,892

 

(4)

2.4%

 

 

 

467,892

 

 

 

200,000

 

 

0.7%

 

 

(1) We do not know when or in what amounts the selling stockholder may offer shares for sale. The selling stockholder might not sell any or all of the shares offered by this prospectus. Because the selling stockholder may offer all or some of the shares pursuant to this offering, and because there are currently no agreements, arrangements or understandings with respect to the resale of any of the shares, we cannot estimate the number of the shares that will be held by the selling stockholder after completion of the offering. However, for purposes of this table, we have assumed that, after completion of the offering, none of the shares covered by this prospectus will be held by the selling stockholder. 

 

(2) Voting and investment power over the shares held by PureTech Health LLC is exercised by its parent entity, PureTech Health plc. The board of directors of PureTech Health plc consists of Mr. Joi Ito, Dr. Raju Kucherlapati, Dr. John LaMattina, Dr. Robert Langer, Dame Marjorie Scarino, Dr. Ben Shapiro, Mr. Christopher Viehbacher, Ms. Daphne Zohar and Mr. Stephen Muniz. None of the members of the board of directors of PureTech Health plc or PureTech Health LLC has individual voting or investment power with respect to such shares. The address for PureTech Health LLC and the individuals listed above is c/o PureTech Health LLC, 501 Boylston St., Suite 6102, Boston, MA 02116.

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(3)   OrbiMed Capital GP VI LLC (“GP VI”) is the sole general partner of OrbiMed Private Investments VI, L.P. (“OPI VI”). OrbiMed Advisors LLC (“OrbiMed Advisors”) is the managing member of GP VI. By virtue of such relationships, GP VI and OrbiMed Advisors may be deemed to have voting and investment power with respect to the shares held by OPI VI and as a result may be deemed to have beneficial ownership of such shares. Jonathan Silverstein, a member of OrbiMed Advisors, is a member of the Company’s board of directors. Advisors exercises investment and voting power through a management committee comprised of Carl L. Gordon, Sven H. Borho and Jonathan T. Silverstein. Each of GP VI, OrbiMed Advisors, Carl L. Gordon, Sven H. Borho, and Jonathan T. Silverstein disclaims beneficial ownership of the shares held by OPI VI, except to the extent of its or his pecuniary interest therein if any. The address of these entities is 601 Lexington Avenue, 54th floor, New York, New York 10022.

 

(4) The address of Quan Venture Fund I, L.P. is Ugland House, PO Box 309, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands KY1-1104.

Relationship with Selling Stockholders

PureTech Health LLC

PureTech Health is a greater than 5% stockholder and a founder of our company and in that capacity provided us with strategic medical, clinical and scientific advice pursuant to a business services, personnel and information management agreement until December 2017. Daphne Zohar, PureTech Health LLC’s founder and Chief Executive Officer, served on our board of directors until November 2018. David Steinberg is a member of our board of directors and previously served as co-founder and Chief Innovation Officer of PureTech Health, LLC until August 2018. PureTech Health LLC purchased shares of Series A preferred stock in our Series A financing in March 2017,  August 2017 and October 2017. We were a subsidiary of PureTech Health LLC until the closing of our Series B financing in November 2017. PureTech Health LLC’s board designation rights terminated upon the consummation of our initial public offering. PureTech Health LLC is entitled to the registration rights described in this prospectus under “Description of Capital Stock.

OrbiMed Private Investments VI, LP

OPI VI is a greater than 5% stockholder that participated in our Series B financing in November 2017, in which it obtained the right to appoint a representative to our board of directors. Although Jonathan Silverstein was OPI VI’s representative prior to our initial public offering, OPI VI’s board designation rights terminated upon the consummation of our initial public offering. OPI VI is also entitled to the registration rights described in this prospectus under “Description of Capital Stock.”

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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We and/or the selling stockholders, if applicable, may sell the securities offered through this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement, if required, in any of the following ways: (1) to or through underwriters or dealers, (2) directly to purchasers, including our affiliates, (3) through agents, or (4) through a combination of any these methods. The securities may be distributed at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed, market prices prevailing at the time of sale, prices related to the prevailing market prices, or negotiated prices.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. In the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, we will name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act and describe any commissions that we must pay to any such agent. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

the name of the agent or any underwriters;

 

the public offering or purchase price;

 

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

A selling stockholder that is an entity may elect to make a pro rata in-kind distribution of shares of our common stock to its members, partners or stockholders pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part by delivering a prospectus. To the extent that such members, partners or stockholders are not affiliates of such selling stockholder, such members, partners or stockholders would thereby receive freely tradeable shares of our common stock pursuant to the distribution through a registration statement.

If any underwriters or agents are used in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we or the selling stockholders, as applicable, will enter into an underwriting agreement, sales agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we or the selling stockholders, as applicable, will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them. To our knowledge, there are currently no plans, arrangements or understandings between the selling stockholders and any underwriter, dealer or agent regarding the sale of the shares covered by this prospectus by such selling stockholders. If any selling stockholder notifies us that a material arrangement has been entered into with an underwriter, dealer or other agent for the sale of shares through a block trade, special offering or secondary distribution, we may be required to file a prospectus supplement pursuant to applicable SEC rules promulgated under the Securities Act.

In connection with the offering of securities, we may grant to the underwriters an option to purchase additional securities with an additional underwriting commission, as may be set forth in the accompanying prospectus supplement. If we grant any such option, the terms of such option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for such securities.

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If a dealer is used in the sale of the securities in respect of which the prospectus is delivered, we or the selling stockholders will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer, who may be deemed to be an “underwriter” as that term is defined in the Securities Act, may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Offered securities may also be offered and sold, if so indicated in the prospectus supplement, in connection with a remarketing upon their purchase, in accordance with a redemption or repayment pursuant to their terms, or otherwise, by one or more remarketing firms, acting as principals for their own accounts or as agents for us. Any remarketing firm will be identified and the terms of its agreement, if any, with us and its compensation will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. Remarketing firms may be deemed to be underwriters in connection with their remarketing of offered securities.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates, may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

We or the selling stockholders may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we or the selling stockholders may enter into

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derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.

The anticipated date of delivery of offered securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to each offer.

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LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters in connection with this offering will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. Any underwriters will also be advised about the validity of the securities and other legal matters by their own counsel, which will be named in the prospectus supplement.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of resTORbio, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for the year ended December 31, 2017 and the period July 5, 2016 (inception) through December 31, 2016, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. Certain information in the registration statement has been omitted from this prospectus in accordance with the rules of the SEC. We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).

We have the authority to designate and issue more than one class or series of stock having various preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption. See “Description of Capital Stock.” We will furnish a full statement of the relative rights and preferences of each class or series of our stock which has been so designated and any restrictions on the ownership or transfer of our stock to any shareholder upon request and without charge. Written requests for such copies should be directed Investor Relations Department, resTORbio, Inc., 500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor, Boston, MA 02116, and our website is located at www.restorbio.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and, therefore, is not part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of the filing of this registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, until we sell all of the securities:

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2018 and as amended on April 27, 2018;

 

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018, and September 30, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 10, 2018, August 9, 2018 and November 13, 2018, respectively;

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our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 30, 2018, March 19, 2018, March 29, 2018, May 9, 2018, May 10, 2018, July 25, 2018, July 30, 2018, August 9, 2018, August 15, 2018, September 18, 2018, October 16, 2018, November 6, 2018, November 13, 2018 and January 7, 2019 (in each case, except for information contained therein which is furnished rather than filed); and

 

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on January 22, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing us at the following address: Investor Relations Department, resTORbio, Inc., 500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor, Boston, MA 02116, telephone (857) 315-5521.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.

You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement. Neither we nor the selling stockholders have authorized anyone to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

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$175,000,000

 

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Units

 

 

12,445,646 Shares of Common Stock

Offered by Selling Stockholders

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

          , 2019

 

 


 

 

We have not authorized any dealer, salesperson or other person to give any information or represent anything not contained in this prospectus. You must not rely on any unauthorized information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. This prospectus does not offer to sell any securities in any jurisdiction where it is unlawful. Neither the delivery of this prospectus, nor any sale made hereunder, shall create any implication that the information in this prospectus is correct after the date hereof.

 

 

 


 

 


 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

 

 

 

PROSPECTUS (Subject to Completion)

  

Dated February 1, 2019

 

 

Up to $50,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM sales agreement, or sales agreement, with SVB Leerink LLC, or SVB Leerink, and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., or Cantor, each an Agent and collectively, the Agents, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through the Agents, acting as agents or principals.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TORC.” On January 31, 2019, the closing price of our common stock, as reported on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, was $8.88 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be “at the market offerings” as defined in Rule 415 promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. The Agents are not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agents using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with their normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between the Agents and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

The compensation to the Agents for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be an amount equal to 3.0% of the gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, each Agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of each Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agents with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. See the section titled “Plan of Distribution” on page S-24 of this prospectus.

We are an emerging growth company as that term is used in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 and, as such, have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus and future filings.

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties referenced under the heading “Risk Factors” on page S-6 of this prospectus and in the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

 

 


 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

SVB LeerinkCantor

 

The date of this Prospectus is                    , 2019

 


 

 


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Page

 

About this Prospectus

  

 

S-1

 

Prospectus Summary

  

 

S-2

 

The Offering

 

 

S-5

 

Risk Factors

  

 

S-6

 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

  

 

S-10

 

Use of Proceeds

  

 

S-12

 

Dividend Policy

 

 

S-12

 

Dilution

  

 

S-13

 

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations for Non-U.S. Holders

 

 

S-15

 

Description of Capital Stock

 

 

S-19

 

Plan of Distribution

  

 

S-24

 

Legal Matters

  

 

S-24

 

Experts

  

 

S-25

 

Where You Can Find More Information

  

 

S-25

 

Incorporation by Reference

  

 

S-25

 

We are responsible for the information contained and incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any related free writing prospectus we prepare or authorize. We have not authorized anyone to give you any other information, and we take no responsibility for any other information that others may give you. If you are in a jurisdiction where offers to sell, or solicitations of offers to purchase, the securities offered by this documentation are unlawful, or if you are a person to whom it is unlawful to direct these types of activities, then the offer presented in this document does not extend to you. The information contained in this document speaks only as of the date of this document, unless the information specifically indicates that another date applies. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

 


 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $50,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we are offering. You should read this prospectus together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information” beginning on page S-25 of this prospectus.

This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC, before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not, and the agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus does not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

We have not, and the Agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with information in addition to or different from that contained in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurances as to the reliability of, any information not contained in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the securities offered hereby, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. You should assume that the information in this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date on the front of the document and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus, or any sale of a security.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to “resTORbio”, “we”, “our”, “us” and “the Company” refer, collectively, to resTORbio, Inc. and, where appropriate, our subsidiary.

S-1

 


 

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights certain information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page S-6 and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Company Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing a new class of innovative medicines that target the biology of aging to prevent or treat age-related diseases with the potential to extend healthy lifespan. Our lead program is selectively targeting the target of rapamycin complex 1, or TORC1, an evolutionarily conserved pathway that contributes to the decline in function of multiple organ systems. Our lead product candidate, RTB101, is an oral, selective, and potent inhibitor of TORC1. RTB101 inhibits the phosphorylation of multiple targets downstream of TORC1. Inhibition of TORC1 has been observed to extend lifespan and healthspan in aging preclinical species and to enhance immune, neurologic and cardiac functions, suggesting potential benefits in several aging-related diseases. We licensed the worldwide rights to our TORC1 program, including RTB101 alone or in combination with rapalogs, such as everolimus, sirolimus, or other mTOR inhibitors, from Novartis International Pharmaceutical Ltd. in March 2017.

The decline in immune function that occurs during aging, or immunosenescence, increases susceptibility to a variety of diseases, including respiratory tract infections, or RTIs, that significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Our initial focus is on the development of RTB101 as a first-in-class immunotherapy designed to improve immune function and thereby reduce the incidence of RTIs in the elderly regardless of the causative pathogen. Our TORC1 immunotherapy approach is supported by two randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2a and Phase 2b clinical trials enrolling more than 900 elderly subjects that provided statistically significant and clinically meaningful results. In 2018, we reported results from our exploratory dose-ranging randomized, placebo-controlled Phase 2b clinical trial in 652 elderly patients at increased risk of RTI-associated morbidity and mortality defined as aged 85 and over, or 65-84 with one or more of comorbidities including: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, type 2 diabetes mellitus, or T2DM, or current smoker. The results from this trial demonstrated a statistically significant and clinically meaningful 30.6% reduction in the percentage of patients with one or more laboratory-confirmed RTIs, the primary endpoint of the trial, in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort. Prespecified analyses of the patient populations enrolled in the trial demonstrated (i) a statistically significant 52.1% reduction in percentage of patients with severe laboratory-confirmed RTI symptoms in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort, (ii) a statistically significant 66.7%, 68.9%, and 25.3% reduction in the prespecified endpoint of percentage patients 85 and older, 65 and older with asthma and 65 and older with T2DM, respectively, with one or more laboratory-confirmed RTIs in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort, and (iii) no reduction in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed RTIs in patients who were current smokers or with COPD in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort. The lack of efficacy observed in current smokers and patients with COPD is consistent with nonclinical data suggesting that mTOR inhibition exacerbates cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation in COPD. The combination of RTB101+everolimus did not meet the primary endpoint suggesting that less TORC1 inhibition with RTB101 10 mg once daily may be more beneficial for reducing the incidence of RTIs in high risk elderly patients. We believe the collective results from our Phase 2a and Phase 2b clinical trials enrolling more than 900 elderly subjects suggest that RTB101 10 mg once daily may improve the function of the aging immune system and reduce the incidence of laboratory-confirmed RTIs in elderly patients. In our planned Phase 3 studies, we may enroll elderly subjects 65 and older, excluding current smokers and COPD patients.

Additional positive results from prespecified analyses for any infection and urinary tract infections, or UTIs, from our Phase 2b trial demonstrated (i) a statistically significant 23.6% reduction in the percentage of patients with any infection in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort compared to the placebo cohort, (ii) a statistically significant 74.6% reduction in the percentage of patients with one or more UTIs in the RTB101 10 mg twice daily cohort and (iii) a 34.4% reduction in the percentage of patients with one or more UTIs in the RTB101 10 mg once daily cohort.

S-2

 


 

If not otherwise specified, we used a nominal 5% or lower p-value (p < 0.05) to define statistical significance for the clinical trials and data presented in this prospectus.

As of January 31, 2019, one family in this patent portfolio covering compositions of matter has 44 issuances in 33 countries, and is pending in six. Our issued patents and pending applications with respect to RTB101 are expected to expire in 2031 or 2032, depending on eligibility for patent term extension or supplementary protection. Additional pending applications are expected to expire between 2034 and 2037, exclusive of possible patent term adjustments or extensions.

Recent scientific findings, including those published in the scientific journals Cell, Nature and Science, suggest that aging and aging-related conditions, such as immunosenescence, may be attributable not only to random cellular wear and tear, but also to specific intra-cellular signaling pathways, including the mTOR pathway. mTOR is a protein kinase that signals via two multiprotein complexes, known as TORC1 and TORC2. TORC1 inhibition has been observed to prolong lifespan, improve immune, neurologic, and cardiac function, decrease adiposity, and delay the onset of aging-related diseases in multiple animal studies. Specifically, with respect to improved immune function, TORC1 inhibition was observed in preclinical and clinical studies to rejuvenate blood, or hematopoietic stem cell function, increase infection-fighting white blood cell production, enhance rapid and independent of antigen, or innate immunity, and enhance antibody-mediated, or adaptive immunity. On the other hand, TORC2 inhibition has been observed to decrease lifespan in preclinical studies and cause unwanted side effects of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in certain animals and humans. Therefore, based on these observations and data from more than 900 patients enrolled in the Phase 2a and Phase 2b clinical trials, we believe our TORC1 program has the potential to improve the function of several aging organ systems such as immune system function and counteract immunosenescence in the elderly.

The reduced ability of elderly patients to effectively detect and fight infections is most commonly manifested in their susceptibility to RTIs and the negative effects such infections have on their overall health. RTIs are the second leading cause of hospitalization in people age 85 and over, and the fourth leading cause in people age 65 and over, contributing to high healthcare burdens and costs for the elderly population and the healthcare system that are three to five times higher than for the younger population. Furthermore, antibiotics, which are ineffective against viruses, are often prescribed indiscriminately to treat RTIs, which may cause side effects related to antibiotic use and contribute to the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance. As the elderly represent the fastest growing population in the world, we believe there is significant unmet medical need for innovative therapeutic options for reducing the incidence of RTIs by improving the function of the aging immune system.

We believe our approach to addressing RTIs in the elderly possesses several clinical and commercial advantages. Our TORC1 program offers an immunotherapy approach that has the potential to address a broad range of viral and bacterial pathogens. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in RTI incidence were observed in the Phase 2a and Phase 2b clinical trials with RTB101. We believe the risk-to-benefit ratio of our program observed in clinical studies to date would be well-suited to the elderly due to the following observations: our oral product candidates were well-tolerated in elderly subjects and none of the participants in the active treatment arms experienced a serious adverse event that was related to the study drug, and the doses being investigated in our Phase 2b clinical trial were 60 to 240 times lower than maximum tolerated doses established in prior clinical trials for other indications. Based on communications during a high-level policy meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, we believe a reduction in the incidence of RTIs has the potential to be a clinically relevant endpoint. Based on the results from our Phase 2b clinical trial with respect to reduction in RTI incidence, we plan to conduct pivotal clinical trials and to seek regulatory approval for commercialization of RTB101 in the United States, Europe and Japan. In some markets, we may collaborate with third parties for the development and commercialization of our product candidates.

Our management team includes Chen Schor, our co-founder who serves as our President and Chief Executive Officer, and Joan Mannick, M.D., our co-founder who serves as our Chief Medical Officer, Meredith Manning, who serves as our Chief Commercial Officer, and additional veterans in drug development and discovery with executive experience in leading global pharmaceutical companies. Dr. Mannick led the TORC1 clinical program at Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Inc. prior to our in-licensing of the program. We are supported by investors that include both private equity venture capital funds and public healthcare investment funds.

S-3

 


 

Company Information

We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware in July 2016 and commenced research and development operations in March 2017. Our operations to date have been limited to organizing, staffing and financing our company, raising capital, in-licensing our technology and conducting research and development activities for our product candidates. We have not yet demonstrated an ability to obtain regulatory approvals, manufacture a commercial-scale product, or arrange for a third party to do so on our behalf, or conduct sales and marketing activities necessary for successful product commercialization. Our principal executive offices are located at 500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor, Boston, MA 02116. Our telephone number is (857) 315-5521. Our website is located at www.restorbio.com. Our website and the information contained on, or that can be accessed through, the website will not be deemed to be incorporated by reference in, and are not considered part of, this prospectus. You should not rely on any such information in making your decision whether to purchase our common stock. Our common stock trades on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TORC”.

On January 30, 2018, we completed our initial public offering, or IPO, whereby we sold 6,516,667 shares of our common stock (inclusive of 850,000 shares of common stock sold by us pursuant to the full exercise of an overallotment option granted to the underwriters in connection with the offering) at a price of $15.00 per share. The shares began trading on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on January 26, 2018. The aggregate net proceeds received by us from the offering were approximately $89.4 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and commissions and other offering expenses payable by us. Upon the closing of the IPO, all outstanding shares of redeemable convertible preferred stock converted into 15,870,559 shares of common stock and all unvested shares of restricted stock automatically vested. Additionally, we are now authorized to issue 150,000,000 shares of common stock and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock. In connection with preparing for the IPO, we effected a 1-for-1.2804 reverse stock split of our common stock. The reverse stock split became effective on January 12, 2018. The par value and authorized shares of common stock and convertible preferred stock were not adjusted as a result of the reverse stock split.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

As a company with less than $1.07 billion in revenue during our most recently completed fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, as modified by the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of specified reduced disclosure and other requirements that are otherwise applicable, in general, to public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These provisions include:

 

reduced disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements;

 

exemption from the non-binding stockholder advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements;

 

exemption from the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting; and

 

reduced disclosure of financial information in this prospectus, such as being permitted to include only two years of audited financial information and two years of selected financial information in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure.

We may take advantage of these exemptions for up to five years or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. We would cease to be an emerging growth company if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual revenues as of the end of a fiscal year, have more than $700 million in market value of our capital stock held by non-affiliates as of any December 31 before that time or if we issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year-period. We may choose to take advantage of some, but not all, of the available exemptions.

The JOBS Act permits an emerging growth company to take advantage of an extended transition period to comply with new or revised accounting standards applicable to public companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this extended transition period and, as a result, we will adopt new or revised accounting standards on the relevant dates on which adoption of such standards is required for non-emerging growth companies.

S-4

 


 

THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us:

Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $50,000,000.

 

Common stock to be outstanding

   immediately after this offering:

Up to 33,678,945 shares (as more fully described in the notes following this table), assuming sales of 5,630,630 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $8.88 per share, which was the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on January 31, 2019. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on how many shares of our common stock we choose to sell and the prices at which such sales occur.

 

Manner of offering:

“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time on The Nasdaq Global Select Market or other existing trading market for our common stock through our sales agents, SVB Leerink and Cantor. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-24 of this prospectus.

 

Use of proceeds:

Our management will retain broad discretion regarding the allocation and use of the net proceeds. We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily to fund activities relating to the advancement of our product candidates, and for other general corporate purposes, including, but not limited to, research and development costs, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital and capital expenditures. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-12 of this prospectus.

 

Risk factors:

Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” on page S-6 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our common stock.

 

The Nasdaq Global Select Market

   symbol:

“TORC”

All information in this prospectus related to the number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering is based on 28,048,315 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2018. The number of shares outstanding as of September 30, 2018 as used throughout this prospectus, unless otherwise indicated, excludes:

 

1,066,678 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2018 at a weighted-average exercise price of $11.52 per share;

 

24,960 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of September 30, 2018;

 

1,413,610 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan; and

 

275,030 shares of common stock reserved for the future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

 

S-5

 


 

RISK FACTORS

Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, as well as other information we include or incorporate by reference into this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected by the materialization of any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to the materialization of any of these risks, and you may lose all or part of your investment. This prospectus and the documents incorporated herein by reference also contain forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of certain factors, including the risks described in the documents incorporated herein by reference, including (i) our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2017, as amended, which is on file with the SEC and is incorporated herein by reference, (ii) our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018 and September 30, 2018, which are on file with the SEC and are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus and other documents we file with the SEC that are deemed incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Risks Related To This Offering and Our Common Stock

The price of our common stock historically has been volatile, which may affect the price at which you could sell any shares of our common stock.

The market price for our common stock historically has been highly volatile and could continue to be subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors. The market price for our common stock has varied between a high price of $21.10 on February 26, 2018 and a low price of $7.29 on December 26, 2018 in the twelve-month period ending on January 31, 2019. This volatility may affect the price at which you could sell the shares of our common stock, and the sale of substantial amounts of our common stock could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Our stock price is likely to continue to be volatile and subject to significant price and volume fluctuations in response to market and other factors, including:

 

the success of competing products or technologies;

 

results of preclinical studies or clinical trials of our product candidates or those of our competitors;

 

developments or disputes concerning patent applications, issued patents or other proprietary rights;

 

regulatory or legal developments in the United States, or U.S., and other countries;

 

the recruitment or departure of key personnel;

 

the level of expenses related to any of our product candidates or clinical development programs;

 

the results of our efforts to discover, develop, acquire or in-license additional product candidates or products;

 

actual or anticipated changes in estimates as to financial results, development timelines or recommendations by securities analysts;

 

variations in our financial results or the financial results of companies that are perceived to be similar to us;

 

sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares intend to sell shares;

 

changes in the structure of healthcare payment systems;

 

market conditions in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors;

 

general economic, industry and market conditions; and

 

the other factors described in this “Risk Factors” section.

S-6

 


 

In addition, companies trading in the stock market in general, and The Nasdaq Global Select Market in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market, securities class-action litigation has often been instituted against companies. Such litigation, if instituted against us, could result in substantial costs and diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and growth prospects.

We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not yield a return on your investment.

Although we currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering in the manner described in the section titled “Use of Proceeds” in this prospectus, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds from this offering and could spend the proceeds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. You will not have the opportunity to influence our decisions on how to use the net proceeds from this offering. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could harm our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

You may experience immediate and substantial dilution.

The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior at the time of sale. Assuming that an aggregate of 5,630,630 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $8.88 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on January 31, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of $50.0 million, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, investors in this offering would experience immediate dilution of $4.20 per share, representing the difference between our as-adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2018, after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price.

In addition, we have a significant number of stock options outstanding. The exercise of any of these outstanding options could result in further dilution. Further, because we expect we will need to raise additional capital to fund our future activities, we may in the future sell substantial amounts of common stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for common stock. Future issuances of common stock or common stock-related securities, together with the exercise of outstanding stock options, if any, may result in further dilution. For additional information on the dilution that you will experience immediately after this offering, see the section titled “Dilution.”

Future sales and issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase common stock, including pursuant to our equity incentive plans, could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to fall.

Additional capital will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. These sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders.

In addition, sales of a substantial number of shares of our outstanding common stock in the public market could occur at any time. These sales, or the perception in the market that the holders of a large number of shares of common stock intend to sell shares, could reduce the market price of our common stock. Significant portions of these shares are held by a relatively small number of stockholders. Sales by our stockholders of a substantial number of shares, or the expectation that such sales may occur, could significantly reduce the market price of our common stock.

S-7

 


 

Our principal stockholders and management own a significant percentage of our stock and will be able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval.

As of September 30, 2018, our executive officers, directors, five percent or greater stockholders and their affiliates beneficially own approximately 72.9% of our outstanding voting stock. These stockholders will have the ability to influence us through their ownership positions. These stockholders may be able to determine all matters requiring stockholder approval. For example, these stockholders, acting together, may be able to control elections of directors or approval of any merger, sale of assets, or other major corporate transaction. This may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our common stock that you may believe are in your best interest as one of our stockholders.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause our stock price to fall.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We are unable to predict the effect that such sales may have on the prevailing market price of our common stock. In addition, the sale of substantial amounts of our common stock could adversely impact its price. As of September 30, 2018, we had outstanding 28,048,315 shares of our common stock and options to purchase 1,066,678 shares of our common stock (of which 25,487 were exercisable as of that date). The sale or the availability for sale of a large number of shares of our common stock in the public market could cause the price of our common stock to decline.

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research, or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research, about our business, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities or industry analysts publish about us or our business. Securities and industry analysts may not publish an adequate amount of research on us, which may negatively impact the trading price for our stock. In addition, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock or publish inaccurate or unfavorable research about our business, our stock price would likely decline. Further, if our operating results fail to meet the forecasts of analysts, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for our stock could decrease, which might cause our stock price and trading volume to decline.

Because we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future, capital appreciation, if any, will be your sole source of gain.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We currently intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. In addition, the terms of any future debt agreements may preclude us from paying dividends. As a result, capital appreciation, if any, of our common stock will be your sole source of gain for the foreseeable future.

We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. For so long as we remain an emerging growth company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not emerging growth companies. These exemptions include not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, not being required to comply with any requirement that may be adopted by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board regarding mandatory audit firm rotation or a supplement to the auditor’s report providing additional information about the audit and the financial statements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We cannot predict whether investors will find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be reduced or more volatile.

S-8

 


 

In addition, the JOBS Act provides that an emerging growth company can take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards. This allows an emerging growth company to delay the adoption of certain accounting standards until those standards would otherwise apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, we will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

The market price of our common stock may be adversely affected by market conditions affecting the stock markets in general, including price and trading fluctuations on The Nasdaq Global Select Market.

Market conditions may result in volatility in the level of, and fluctuations in, market prices of stocks generally and, in turn, our common stock and sales of substantial amounts of our common stock in the market, in each case being unrelated or disproportionate to changes in our operating performance. Concerns over global stability and economic conditions in the U.S. and abroad have contributed to the extreme volatility of the markets, which may have an effect on the market price of our common stock.

Inadequate funding for the Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, the SEC and other government agencies could hinder their ability to hire and retain key leadership and other personnel, prevent new products and services from being developed or commercialized in a timely manner or otherwise prevent those agencies from performing normal business functions on which the operation of our business may rely, which could negatively impact our business.

The ability of the FDA to review and approve new products can be affected by a variety of factors, including government budget and funding levels, ability to hire and retain key personnel and accept the payment of user fees, and statutory, regulatory, and policy changes. Average review times at the agency have fluctuated in recent years as a result. In addition, government funding of the SEC and other government agencies on which our operations may rely, including those that fund research and development activities, is subject to the political process, which is inherently fluid and unpredictable.

Disruptions at the FDA and other agencies may also slow the time necessary for new drugs to be reviewed and/or approved by necessary government agencies, which would adversely affect our business. For example, over the last several years, including beginning on December 22, 2018, the U.S. government has shut down several times and certain regulatory agencies, such as the FDA and the SEC, have had to furlough critical FDA, SEC and other government employees and stop critical activities. If a prolonged government shutdown occurs, it could significantly impact the ability of the FDA to timely review and process our regulatory submissions, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Further, upon completion of this offering, future government shutdowns could impact our ability to access the public markets and obtain necessary capital in order to properly capitalize and continue our operations.

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CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus, including the documents that we incorporate by reference, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but are not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “will,” “could,” “should,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “anticipates,” “believes,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “projects,” “potential,” “continue,” and similar expressions, or the negative of these terms, or similar expressions. Accordingly, these statements involve estimates, assumptions, risks and uncertainties which could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in them. Any forward-looking statements are qualified in their entirety by reference to the factors discussed throughout this prospectus, and in particular those factors referenced in the section “Risk Factors.”

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements that are based on our management’s belief and assumptions and on information currently available to our management. These statements relate to future events or our future financial performance, and involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

our plans to develop and commercialize RTB101 alone or in combination with rapalogs, such as everolimus or sirolimus, and other product candidates for the targeted indications and patient populations, including the therapeutic potential and clinical benefits thereof;

 

our ongoing and future clinical trials for RTB101 alone or in combination with rapalogs, such as everolimus or sirolimus, whether conducted by us or by any future collaborators, including the timing of initiation of these trials and of the anticipated results;

 

the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for our product candidates;

 

the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any products for which we receive regulatory approval;

 

our commercialization, marketing and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;

 

our intellectual property position and strategy;

 

our ability to identify additional product candidates with significant commercial potential;

 

our plans to enter into collaborations for the development and commercialization of product candidates;

 

the potential benefits of any future collaboration;

 

our expectations related to the use of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities;

 

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements and needs for additional financing;

 

our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the JOBS Act;

 

our expected uses of the net proceeds from this offering;

 

developments relating to our competitors and our industry; and

 

the impact of government laws and regulations.

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These forward-looking statements are neither promises nor guarantees of future performance due to a variety of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, which could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated by these forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, the risks more fully discussed in the “Risk Factors” section in this prospectus, and the risk factors and cautionary statements described in other documents that we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically under “Item 1A. Risk Factors” and elsewhere in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2017 and our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018 and September 30, 2018, as updated by our subsequent annual, quarterly and other reports and documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.

Given these uncertainties, readers should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date on which the statements were made and are not guarantees of future performance. Except as may be required by applicable law, we do not undertake to update any forward-looking statements after the date of this prospectus or the respective dates of documents incorporated by reference herein or therein that include forward-looking statements.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $50,000,000 from time to time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the Controlled Equity OfferingSM sales agreement with SVB Leerink and Cantor as a source of financing. Therefore, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.

We intend to use any net proceeds from this offering primarily to fund activities relating to the advancement of our product candidates, and for other general corporate purposes. General corporate purposes may include research and development costs, including the conduct of one or more clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, potential strategic acquisitions of complementary businesses, services or technologies, expansion of our technology infrastructure and capabilities, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of net proceeds.

DIVIDEND POLICY

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock. We intend to retain all of our future earnings, if any, to finance the growth and development of our business. We do not intend to pay cash dividends to our stockholders in the foreseeable future.

 

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share of our common stock in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering. Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2018 was approximately $109.3 million, or approximately $3.90 per share of common stock. Net tangible book value per share represents the amount of total tangible assets (total assets less intangible assets) less total liabilities, divided by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2018.

Dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors participating in this offering represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after giving effect to this offering. After giving effect to the assumed sale of 5,630,630 shares of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $50,000,000 at an assumed offering price of $8.88 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on January 31, 2018, and after deduction of commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2018 would have been approximately $157.7 million, or approximately $4.68 per share of common stock. This represents an immediate increase in net tangible book value of $0.78 per share of common stock to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in net tangible book value of $4.20 per share of common stock to investors participating in this offering at the assumed offering price.

Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed public offering price per share paid by new investors. The following table illustrates this per share dilution:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assumed offering price per share

 

 

 

 

$

8.88

 

 

Net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2018

$

3.90

 

 

 

 

 

 

Increase in net tangible book value per share attributable to

   new investors attributable to this offering

 

0.78

 

 

 

 

 

 

As adjusted net tangible book value per share as of September

   30, 2018, after giving effect to this offering

 

 

 

 

 

4.68

 

 

Dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors

   participating in this offering

 

 

 

 

$

4.20

 

 

The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 5,630,630 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $8.88 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Select Market on January 31, 2019, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $50,000,000. The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $8.88 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $50,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in an increase to our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $4.76 and an increase in the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $5.12, after deducting commissions payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $8.88 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of approximately $50,000,000 is sold at that price, would result in a decrease to our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $4.58 and a decrease in the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $3.30, after deducting commissions payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only, and will adjust based on the actual offering prices, the actual number of shares that we offer and sell in this offering and other terms of each sale of shares in this offering.

The information above and in the foregoing table is based upon 28,048,315 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2018. The information above and in the foregoing table excludes as of September 30, 2018:

 

 

1,066,678 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of September 30, 2018 at a weighted-average exercise price of $11.52 per share;

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24,960 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of September 30, 2018;

 

1,413,610 shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2018 Stock Option and Incentive Plan; and

 

275,030 shares of common stock reserved for the future issuance under our 2018 Employee Stock Purchase Plan.

In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital in the future through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities due to market conditions or strategic considerations, even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that any of our outstanding options are exercised, new options are issued under our equity incentive plans or we issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or convertible debt securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.

 

 

 

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MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS

The following discussion is a summary of certain material U.S. federal income tax considerations for non-U.S. holders (as defined below) with respect to their ownership and disposition of shares of our common stock issued pursuant to this offering. For purposes of this discussion, a non-U.S. holder means a beneficial owner of our common stock that is for U.S. federal income tax purposes:

 

a non-resident alien individual;

 

a foreign corporation or any other foreign organization taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes; or

 

a foreign estate or trust, the income of which is not subject to U.S. federal income tax on a net income basis.

This discussion does not address the tax treatment of partnerships or other entities that are pass-through entities for U.S. federal income tax purposes or persons that hold their common stock through partnerships or other pass-through entities. A partner in a partnership or other pass-through entity that will hold our common stock should consult his, her or its tax advisor regarding the tax consequences of acquiring, holding and disposing of our common stock through a partnership or other pass-through entity, as applicable.

This discussion is based on current provisions of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, which we refer to as the Code, existing and proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations promulgated thereunder, current administrative rulings and judicial decisions, all as in effect as of the date of this prospectus and all of which are subject to change or to differing interpretation, possibly with retroactive effect. Any such change or differing interpretation could alter the tax consequences to non-U.S. holders described in this prospectus. There can be no assurance that the Internal Revenue Service, which we refer to as the IRS, will not challenge one or more of the tax consequences described herein. We assume in this discussion that a non-U.S. holder holds shares of our common stock as a capital asset within the meaning of Section 1221 of the Code, generally property held for investment.

This discussion does not address all aspects of U.S. federal income taxation that may be relevant to a particular non-U.S. holder in light of that non-U.S. holder’s individual circumstances nor does it address U.S. state, local or non-U.S. taxes, the alternative minimum tax, the rules regarding qualified small business stock within the meaning of Section 1202 of the Code, the Medicare tax on net investment income or any other aspect of any U.S. federal tax other than the income tax. This discussion also does not consider any specific facts or circumstances that may apply to a non-U.S. holder and does not address the special tax rules applicable to particular non-U.S. holders, such as:

 

insurance companies;

 

tax-exempt or governmental organizations;

 

financial institutions;

 

brokers or dealers in securities;

 

regulated investment companies;

 

pension plans;

 

“controlled foreign corporations,” “passive foreign investment companies,” and corporations that accumulate earnings to avoid U.S. federal income tax;

 

“qualified foreign pension funds” as defined in Section 897(I)(2) of the Code and entities all of the interests of which are held by qualified foreign pension funds;

 

persons that have a functional currency other than the U.S. dollar;

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persons deemed to sell our common stock under the constructive sale provisions of the Code;

 

persons that hold our common stock as part of a straddle, hedge, conversion transaction, synthetic security or other integrated investment;

 

persons who hold or receive our common stock pursuant to the exercise of any employee stock option or otherwise as compensation; and

 

certain U.S. expatriates.

This discussion is for general information only and is not tax advice. Accordingly, all prospective non-U.S. holders of our common stock should consult their tax advisors with respect to the U.S. federal, state, local and non-U.S. tax consequences of the ownership and disposition of our common stock.

Distributions on Our Common Stock

As described in the “Risk Factors” section above, we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our capital stock in the foreseeable future. Distributions, if any, on our common stock will constitute dividends for U.S. federal income tax purposes to the extent paid from our current or accumulated earnings and profits, as determined under U.S. federal income tax principles. If a distribution exceeds our current and accumulated earnings and profits, the excess will be treated as a tax-free return of the non-U.S. holder’s investment, up to such holder’s tax basis in the common stock. Any remaining excess will be treated as capital gain, subject to the tax treatment described below in “Gain on Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Stock.” Any such distributions will also be subject to the discussions below under the sections titled “Backup Withholding and Information Reporting” and “FATCA.”

Subject to the discussion in the following two paragraphs in this section, dividends paid to a non-U.S. holder generally will be subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence. Dividends that are treated as effectively connected with a trade or business conducted by a non-U.S. holder within the United States and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, that are attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by the non-U.S. holder within the United States, are generally exempt from the 30% withholding tax if the non-U.S. holder satisfies applicable certification and disclosure requirements. However, such U.S. effectively connected income, net of specified deductions and credits, is taxed at the same graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code). Any U.S. effectively connected income received by a non-U.S. holder that is a corporation may also, under certain circumstances, be subject to an additional “branch profits tax” at a 30% rate or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence.

A non-U.S. holder of our common stock who claims the benefit of an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence generally will be required to provide a properly executed IRS Form W-8BEN or W-8BEN-E (or successor form) to the applicable withholding agent and satisfy applicable certification and other requirements. Non-U.S. holders are urged to consult their tax advisors regarding their entitlement to benefits under a relevant income tax treaty. A non-U.S. holder that is eligible for a reduced rate of U.S. withholding tax under an income tax treaty may obtain a refund or credit of any excess amounts withheld by timely filing a U.S. tax return with the IRS.

Gain on Sale or Other Taxable Disposition of Our Common Stock

Subject to the discussions below under “Backup Withholding and Information Reporting” and “FATCA,” a non-U.S. holder generally will not be subject to any U.S. federal income or withholding tax on any gain realized upon such holder’s sale or other taxable disposition of shares of our common stock unless:

 

the gain is effectively connected with the non-U.S. holder’s conduct of a U.S. trade or business and, if an applicable income tax treaty so provides, is attributable to a permanent establishment or a fixed base maintained by such non-U.S. holder in the United States, in which case the non-U.S. holder generally will be taxed on a net income basis at the graduated U.S. federal income tax rates applicable to United States persons (as defined in the Code) and, if the non-U.S. holder is a foreign corporation, the branch profits tax described above in “Distributions on Our Common Stock” also may apply;

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the non-U.S. holder is a nonresident alien individual who is present in the United States for 183 days or more in the taxable year of the disposition and certain other conditions are met, in which case the non-U.S. holder will be subject to a 30% tax (or such lower rate as may be specified by an applicable income tax treaty between the United States and such holder’s country of residence) on the net gain derived from the disposition, which may be offset by certain U.S. source capital losses of the non-U.S. holder, if any (even though the individual is not considered a resident of the United States), provided that the non-U.S. holder has timely filed U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such losses; or

 

we are, or have been, at any time during the five-year period preceding such sale or other taxable disposition (or the non-U.S. holder’s holding period, if shorter) a U.S. real property holding corporation, unless our common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market and the non-U.S. holder holds no more than 5% of our outstanding common stock, directly or indirectly, actually or constructively, during the shorter of the 5-year period ending on the date of the disposition or the period that the non-U.S. holder held our common stock. Generally, a corporation is a U.S. real property holding corporation only if the fair market value of its U.S. real property interests equals or exceeds 50% of the sum of the fair market value of its worldwide real property interests plus its other assets used or held for use in a trade or business. Although there can be no assurance, we do not believe that we are, or have been, a U.S. real property holding corporation, or that we are likely to become one in the future. No assurance can be provided that our common stock will be regularly traded on an established securities market for purposes of the rules described above.

Backup Withholding and Information Reporting

We must report annually to the IRS and to each non-U.S. holder the gross amount of the distributions on our common stock paid to such holder and the tax withheld, if any, with respect to such distributions. Non-U.S. holders may have to comply with specific certification procedures to establish that the holder is not a United States person (as defined in the Code) in order to avoid backup withholding at the applicable rate with respect to dividends on our common stock. Dividends paid to non-U.S. holders subject to withholding of U.S. federal income tax, as described above in “Distributions on Our Common Stock,” generally will be exempt from U.S. backup withholding.

Information reporting and backup withholding will generally apply to the proceeds of a disposition of our common stock by a non-U.S. holder effected by or through the U.S. office of any broker, U.S. or foreign, unless the holder certifies its status as a non-U.S. holder and satisfies certain other requirements, or otherwise establishes an exemption. Generally, information reporting and backup withholding will not apply to a payment of disposition proceeds to a non-U.S. holder where the transaction is effected outside the United States through a non-U.S. office of a broker. However, for information reporting purposes, dispositions effected through a non-U.S. office of a broker with substantial U.S. ownership or operations generally will be treated in a manner similar to dispositions effected through a U.S. office of a broker. 

Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the application of the information reporting and backup withholding rules to them. Copies of information returns may be made available to the tax authorities of the country in which the non-U.S. holder resides or is incorporated under the provisions of a specific treaty or agreement. Backup withholding is not an additional tax. Any amounts withheld under the backup withholding rules from a payment to a non-U.S. holder can be refunded or credited against the non-U.S. holder’s U.S. federal income tax liability, if any, provided that an appropriate claim is filed with the IRS in a timely manner.

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FATCA

Provisions of the Code commonly referred to as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act, or FATCA, generally impose a U.S. federal withholding tax at a rate of 30% on payments of dividends on our common stock paid to a foreign entity unless (i) if the foreign entity is a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity undertakes certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligations, (ii) if the foreign entity is not a “foreign financial institution,” such foreign entity identifies certain of its U.S. investors, if any, or (iii) the foreign entity is otherwise exempt under FATCA. Such withholding may also apply to gross proceeds from the sale or other disposition of our common stock, although under recently proposed U.S. Treasury Regulations, no withholding would apply to such gross proceeds. The preamble to the proposed regulations specifies that taxpayers (including withholding agents) are permitted to rely on the proposed regulations pending finalization. Under certain circumstances, a non-U.S. holder may be eligible for refunds or credits of this withholding tax. An intergovernmental agreement between the United States and an applicable foreign country may modify the requirements described in this paragraph. Non-U.S. holders should consult their tax advisors regarding the possible implications of this legislation on their investment in our common stock and the entities through which they hold our common stock, including, without limitation, the process and deadlines for meeting the applicable requirements to prevent the imposition of the 30% withholding tax under FATCA.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our common stock and preferred stock summarizes the material terms and provisions of the common stock that we may offer under this prospectus. The following description of our capital stock does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, and by applicable law. The terms of our common stock and preferred stock may also be affected by Delaware law.

Authorized Capital Stock

Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.0001 per share, all of which shares of preferred stock are undesignated.

As of January 31, 2019, 28,055,344 shares of our common stock were outstanding and held by 7 stockholders of record.

Common Stock

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock. All outstanding shares are fully paid and nonassessable.

When we issue shares of common stock under this prospectus, the shares will fully be paid and nonassessable and will not have, or be subject to, any preemptive or similar rights.

Undesignated Preferred Stock

Our board of directors is authorized to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock in one or more series without stockholder approval. Our board of directors may determine the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions, including voting rights, dividend rights, conversion rights, redemption privileges and liquidation preferences, of each series of preferred stock. The purpose of authorizing our board of directors to issue preferred stock in one or more series and determine the number of shares in the series and its rights and preferences is to eliminate delays associated with a stockholder vote on specific issuances. Examples of rights and preferences that the Board may fix are:

 

dividend rights;

 

conversion rights;

 

voting rights;

 

terms of redemption;

 

liquidation preference;

 

sinking fund terms; and

 

the number of shares constituting, or the designation of, such series, any or all of which may be greater than the rights of common stock.

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The existence of authorized but unissued shares of undesignated preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of us or our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer, stockholder or stockholder group. The rights of holders of our common stock described above, will be subject to, and may be adversely affected by, the rights of any preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future. The issuance of shares of undesignated preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Registration Rights

Pursuant to the terms of our investors’ rights agreement entered into in November 2017, certain of our stockholders are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act until the earliest of (a) January 2023, (b) the date on which such holder ceases to hold registrable securities, or (c) such holder’s registrable securities could be sold without any restriction on volume or manner of sale on any three-month period under Rule 144 or any successor rule, as described below. We refer to these shares collectively as registrable securities.

Demand Registration Rights

The holders of 14,466,883 shares of our common stock, including the 12,445,646 shares of common stock to be registered pursuant to this Registration Statement, are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of the investors’ rights agreement, we will be required, upon the written request of the holders of at least 20% of our outstanding registrable securities, as defined in the investors’ rights agreement, to file a registration statement with respect to at least 40% of the registrable securities and use commercially reasonable efforts to effect the registration of all or a portion of their registrable securities for public resale so long as the total amount of registrable shares requested to be registered has an anticipated aggregate offering price to the public, net of selling expenses, of at least $15.0 million. We are required to effect only two registrations pursuant to this provision of the investors’ rights agreement.

Short-Form Registration Rights

The holders of at least 10% of our outstanding registrable securities can request that we register all or part of their shares on Form S-3 if we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3 and if the aggregate offering price, net of selling expenses, is at least $10.0 million. We are required to effect only two registrations in any twelve month period pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement. The right to have such shares registered on Form S-3 is further subject to other specified conditions and limitations.

Piggyback Registration Rights

Pursuant to the investors’ rights agreement, if we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of these shares are entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions contained in the investors’ rights agreement, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering to the number of shares which we and the underwriters determine in our sole discretion will not jeopardize the success of the offering.

Indemnification

Our investors’ rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we are obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they are obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

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Anti-Takeover Effects of our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws and Delaware Law

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing another party from acquiring control of us and encouraging persons considering unsolicited tender offers or other unilateral takeover proposals to negotiate with our board of directors rather than pursue non-negotiated takeover attempts. These provisions include the items described below.

Board Composition and Filling Vacancies

Our certificate of incorporation provides for the division of our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms, with one class being elected each year. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that directors may be removed only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds or more of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Furthermore, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of our directors then in office even if less than a quorum. The classification of directors, together with the limitations on removal of directors and treatment of vacancies, has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors.

No Written Consent of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation provides that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting, and that stockholders may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting. This limit may lengthen the amount of time required to take stockholder actions and would prevent the amendment of our bylaws or removal of directors by our stockholders without holding a meeting of stockholders.

Meetings of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that only a majority of the members of our board of directors then in office may call special meetings of stockholders and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.

Advance Notice Requirements

Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of our stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. Our bylaws specify the requirements as to form and content of all stockholders’ notices. These requirements may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before the stockholders at an annual or special meeting.

Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Any amendment of our certificate of incorporation must first be approved by a majority of our board of directors, and if required by law or our certificate of incorporation, must thereafter be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment and a majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to stockholder action, board composition, limitation of liability and the amendment of our bylaws and certificate of incorporation must be approved by not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. Our bylaws may be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, subject to any limitations set forth in the bylaws; and may also be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, or, if our board of directors recommends that the stockholders approve the amendment, by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, in each case voting together as a single class.

S-21

 


 

Undesignated Preferred Stock

Our certificate of incorporation provides for 10,000,000 authorized shares of undesignated preferred stock. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Choice of Forum

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative form, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for: (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty or other wrongdoing by any of our directors, officers, employees or agents to us or our stockholders; (3) any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to any provision of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or our certificate of incorporation or bylaws; or (4) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock will be deemed to have notice of and to have consented to this choice of forum provision. It is possible that a court of law could rule that the choice of forum provision contained in our restated certificate of incorporation is inapplicable or unenforceable if it is challenged in a proceeding or otherwise.

Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:

 

before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

 

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

any sale, transfer, lease, pledge or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

S-22

 


 

 

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; and

 

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

Nasdaq Global Market Listing

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “TORC.”

Transfer Agent and Registrar

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A. The transfer agent and registrar’s address is 250 Royall Street, Canton, Massachusetts 02021, and its telephone number is (800) 962-4284.

 

S-23

 


 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

On February 1, 2019, we entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM sales agreement with the Agents under which we may issue and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate gross sales price of up to $50,000,000 from time to time through the Agents, acting as agents. The sales agreement has been filed as an exhibit to our registration statement on Form S-3 of which this prospectus forms a part.

Upon delivery of a placement notice and subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, the Agents may sell our common stock by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act. We may instruct the Agents not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or the Agents may suspend the offering of common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.

We will pay the Agents commissions, in cash, for their services in acting as agent in the sale of our common stock. The Agents will be entitled to compensation at a fixed commission rate of 3.0% of the gross proceeds from each sale of our common stock. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. We have also agreed to reimburse the Agents for certain specified expenses, including the fees and disbursements of their legal counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding compensation and reimbursements payable to the Agents under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $175,000.

Settlement for sales of common stock will occur on the second business day following the date on which any sales are made, or on some other date that is agreed upon by us and the Agents in connection with a particular transaction, in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the Agents may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

Each Agent will use its commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with its sales and trading practices, to solicit offers to purchase the common stock shares under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, each Agent will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of each Agent will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.

The offering of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein. We and each Agent (with respect to itself) may each terminate the sales agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice or by an Agent at any time in certain circumstances, including the occurrence of a material and adverse change in our business or financial condition that makes it impractical or inadvisable to market our common stock or to enforce contracts for the sale of our common stock.

The Agents and their respective affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, the Agents will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.

This prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by the Agents and the Agents may distribute this prospectus electronically.

LEGAL MATTERS

Certain legal matters in connection with this offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon for us by Goodwin Procter LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. The Agents are being represented by Latham & Watkins LLP, San Diego, California in connection with this offering.

S-24

 


 

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of resTORbio, Inc. and subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017 and 2016 and for the year ended December 31, 2017 and the period July 5, 2016 (inception) through December 31, 2016, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the SEC. Certain information in the registration statement has been omitted from this prospectus in accordance with the rules of the SEC. We are subject to the information requirements of the Exchange Act and, in accordance therewith, file annual, quarterly and special reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These documents also may be accessed through the SEC’s electronic data gathering, analysis and retrieval system, or EDGAR, via electronic means, including the SEC’s home page on the Internet (www.sec.gov).

We have the authority to designate and issue more than one class or series of stock having various preferences, conversion and other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to dividends, qualifications, and terms and conditions of redemption. See “Description of Capital Stock.” We will furnish a full statement of the relative rights and preferences of each class or series of our stock which has been so designated and any restrictions on the ownership or transfer of our stock to any shareholder upon request and without charge. Written requests for such copies should be directed Investor Relations Department, resTORbio, Inc., 500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor, Boston, MA 02116. Our website is located at www.restorbio.com. Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and therefore, is not part of this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference the information and reports we file with it, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to these documents. The information incorporated by reference is an important part of this prospectus, and information that we file later with the SEC will automatically update and supersede the information already incorporated by reference. We are incorporating by reference the documents listed below, which we have already filed with the SEC, and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, including all filings made after the date of this prospectus, except as to any portion of any future report or document that is not deemed filed under such provisions, until we sell all of the securities:

 

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the SEC on March 29, 2018 and as amended on April 27, 2018;

 

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2018, June 30, 2018, and September 30, 2018, filed with the SEC on May 10, 2018, August 9, 2018 and November 13, 2018, respectively;

 

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 30, 2018, March 19, 2018, March 29, 2018, May 9, 2018, May 10, 2018, July 25, 2018, July 30, 2018, August 9, 2018, August 15, 2018, September 18, 2018, October 16, 2018, November 6, 2018, November 13, 2018 and January 7, 2019 (in each case, except for information contained therein which is furnished rather than filed); and

 

the description of our common stock contained in our registration statement on Form 8-A filed with the SEC on January 22, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for the purposes of updating this description.

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Pursuant to Rule 412 under the Securities Act, any statement contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any other subsequently filed document that is deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus modifies or supersedes the statement. Any statement so modified or superseded will not be deemed, except as so modified or superseded, to constitute a part of this prospectus.

Upon request, we will provide, without charge, to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a copy of this prospectus is delivered, a copy of the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus. You may request a copy of these filings, and any exhibits we have specifically incorporated by reference as an exhibit in this prospectus, at no cost by writing us at the following address: Investor Relations Department, resTORbio, Inc., 500 Boylston Street, 12th Floor, Boston, MA 02116. These filings may also be obtained through our website located at www.restorbio.com. The reference to our website is intended to be an inactive textual reference and, except for the documents incorporated by reference as noted above, the information on, or accessible through, our website is not intended to be part of this prospectus.

You should rely only on the information incorporated by reference or provided in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or in the documents incorporated by reference is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front of this prospectus or those documents.

We advise that there have been no material changes in our affairs that have occurred since the end of the latest fiscal period for which audited financial statements were included in the latest Form 10-K and that have not been described in a Form 10-Q or Form 8-K filed under the Exchange Act.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. We have incorporated exhibits into this registration statement. You should read the exhibits carefully for provisions that may be important to you.

S-26

 


 

 

Up to $50,000,000

 

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

SVB LeerinkCantor

 

 

 

                    , 2019

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Part II—INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution

The expenses payable by resTORbio, Inc. (the “Registrant” or the “Company”) in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered (other than underwriting discounts and commissions, if any) are set forth below. Each item listed is estimated, except for the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) registration fee.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SEC registration fee

  

$

34,605  

 

FINRA filing fee

  

 

*

 

Legal fees and expenses

  

 

*

 

Accounting fees and expenses

  

 

*

 

Printing fees and expenses

  

 

*

 

Transfer agent and trustee fees

  

 

*

 

Miscellaneous

  

 

*

 

Total

  

$

*

 

 

*

Estimated expenses not presently known

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, authorizes a corporation to indemnify its directors and officers against liabilities arising out of actions, suits and proceedings to which they are made or threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that they have served or are currently serving as a director or officer to a corporation. The indemnity may cover expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the director or officer in connection with any such action, suit or proceeding. Section 145 permits corporations to pay expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by directors and officers in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding. In addition, Section 145 provides that a corporation has the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of its directors and officers against any liability asserted against them and incurred by them in their capacity as a director or officer, or arising out of their status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify the director or officer against such liability under Section 145.

We have adopted provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws that limit or eliminate the personal liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended. Consequently, a director will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages or breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability for:

 

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

any unlawful payments related to dividends or unlawful stock purchases, redemptions or other distributions; or

 

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

These limitations of liability do not alter director liability under the federal securities laws and do not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as an injunction or rescission.

II-1

 


 

In addition, our bylaws provide that:

 

we will indemnify our directors, officers and, in the discretion of our board of directors, certain employees to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended; and

 

we will advance reasonable expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and, in the discretion of our board of directors, to our officers and certain employees, in connection with legal proceedings relating to their service for or on behalf of us, subject to limited exceptions.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and with certain of our executive officers. These agreements provide that we will indemnify each of our directors, certain of our executive officers and, at times, their affiliates to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. We will advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees (but excluding judgments, fines and settlement amounts), to each indemnified director, executive officer or affiliate in connection with any proceeding in which indemnification is available and we will indemnify our directors and officers for any action or proceeding arising out of that person’s services as a director or officer brought on behalf of the Company and/or in furtherance of our rights. Additionally, each of our directors may have certain rights to indemnification, advancement of expenses and/or insurance provided by their affiliates, which indemnification relates to and might apply to the same proceedings arising out of such director’s services as a director referenced herein. Nonetheless, we have agreed in the indemnification agreements that the Company’s obligations to those same directors are primary and any obligation of the affiliates of those directors to advance expenses or to provide indemnification for the expenses or liabilities incurred by those directors are secondary.

We also maintain general liability insurance which covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers, including liabilities under the Securities Act.


II-2

 


 

Item 16. Exhibits

EXHIBIT INDEX

 

 

 

 

Exhibit

No.

  

Description

  1.1*

  

Form of Underwriting Agreement

 

 

  1.2

  

Controlled Equity Offering Sales Agreement dated February 1, 2019 by and among the Registrant and SVB Leerink LLC and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

 

 

  3.1

  

Third Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation (as currently in effect) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (File No. 333-222373) filed on January 16, 2018)

 

 

  3.2

  

Amended and Restated Bylaws (as currently in effect) (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.5 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (File No. 333-222373) filed on January 16, 2018)

 

 

  4.1

  

Specimen stock certificate evidencing the shares of common stock (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1/A (File No. 333-222373) filed on January 16, 2018)

 

 

  4.2

  

Amended and Restated Investors’ Rights Agreement, dated as of November 29, 2017, among the Registrant and the other parties thereto (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.2 to our Registration Statement on Form S-1 filed with the SEC on December 29, 2017)

 

 

  4.5

  

Form of indenture for senior debt securities and the related form of senior debt security

 

 

  4.6

  

Form of indenture for subordinated debt securities and the related form of subordinated debt security

 

 

  4.7*

  

Form of Certificate of Designations

 

 

  4.8*

  

Form of Warrant Agreements

 

 

  4.9*

  

Form of Unit Agreement and Unit Certificate

 

 

  4.10*

  

Form of Preferred Stock Certificate

 

 

  4.11

 

Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2

 

 

  5.1

  

Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP

 

 

  5.2

  

Opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP relating to the sales agreement prospectus

 

 

23.1

  

Consent of KPMG LLP

 

 

23.2

  

Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)

 

 

23.3

  

Consent of Goodwin Procter LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2)

 

 

24.1

  

Power of Attorney (included on the signature page to this registration statement)

 

 

25.1**

  

Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Senior Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939

 

 

25.2**

  

Form T-1 Statement of Eligibility of Trustee for Subordinated Indenture under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939

II-3

 


 

 

*

To be filed, if necessary, by amendment or as an exhibit to a document to be incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in this registration statement, including a Current Report on Form 8-K.

 

**

To be filed by amendment pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.


II-4

 


 

Item 17. Undertakings

The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

(i) To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;

(ii) To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

(iii) To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement; provided, however, that paragraphs (l)(i), (l)(ii) and (l)(iii) of this section do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Securities and Exchange Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of the registration statement;

(2) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof;

(3) To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering;

(4) That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:

(i) Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

(ii) Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(l)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date;

II-5

 


 

(5) That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

(i) Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

(ii) Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

(iii) The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

(iv) Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser;

(6) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof;

(7) Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue;

(8) That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of this registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in a form of prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the time it was declared effective;

(9) That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof; and

(10) To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Securities and Exchange Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

II-6

 


 

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of Boston, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on this 1st day of February, 2019.

 

 

 

 

RESTORBIO, INC.

 

 

By:

 

/s/ Chen Schor

 

 

Chen Schor

 

 

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

KNOW ALL BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby severally constitutes and appoints each of Chen Schor and John McCabe, and each of them singly, as such person’s true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for such person and in such person’s name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to sign any or all amendments (including, without limitation, post-effective amendments) to this registration statement (or any registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective upon filing pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933), and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto, and all documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto each said attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in and about the premises, as fully to all intents and purposes as such person might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that any said attorney-in-fact and agent, or any substitute or substitutes of any of them, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this registration statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

 

 

 

/s/ Chen Schor

Chen Schor

  

President, Chief Executive Officer and Director

(Principal Executive Officer)

 

February 1, 2019

 

 

 

/s/ John McCabe

John McCabe

  

Vice President, Finance

(Principal Financial and

Accounting Officer)

 

February 1, 2019

 

 

 

/s/ Jeffrey Chodakewitz

Jeffrey Chodakewitz

  

Director

 

February 1, 2019

 

 

 

/s/ Paul Fonteyne

Paul Fonteyne

  

Director

 

February 1, 2019

 

 

 

/s/ Michael Grissinger

Michael Grissinger

  

Director

 

February 1, 2019

 

 

 

/s/ Jonathan Silverstein

Jonathan Silverstein

  

Director

 

February 1, 2019

 

 

 

/s/ David Steinberg

David Steinberg

  

Director

 

February 1, 2019

 

 

 

/s/ Lynne Sullivan

Lynne Sullivan

  

Director

 

February 1, 2019

 

II-7

 

torc-ex12_155.htm

Exhibit 1.2

resTORbio, Inc.
Shares of Common Stock

(par value $0.0001 per share)

Controlled Equity OfferingSM

Sales Agreement

February 1, 2019

SVB Leerink LLC

One Federal Street, 37th Floor

Boston, MA 02110

 

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

 

 

Ladies and Gentlemen:

resTORbio, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with SVB Leerink LLC and Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. (each individually an “Agent” and collectively, the “Agents”) as follows:

1.Issuance and Sale of Shares.  The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agents, shares of common stock (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”); provided, however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agents such number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that would (a) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the effective Registration Statement (as defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) exceed the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (d) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed a Prospectus Supplement (as defined below) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount”).  Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the amount of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Agents shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.  The offer and sale of Placement Shares through the Agents will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue Common Stock.

 


 

 

The Company has filed or will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act Regulations”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Exchange Act Regulations”).  The Company has prepared a prospectus or a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of the registration statement, which prospectus or prospectus supplement relates to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company (the “Prospectus Supplement”).  The Company will furnish to the Agents, for use by the Agents, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented, by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company.  The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable (which shall be a Prospectus Supplement), with respect to the Placement Shares.  Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B of the Securities Act Regulations, is herein called the “Registration Statement.”  The base prospectus or base prospectuses, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented, if necessary, by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus or prospectuses and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act Regulations, together with the then issued Issuer Free Writing Prospectus(es) (as defined below), is herein called the “Prospectus.”  

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents.  Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference.  For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

2.Placements.  Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify an Agent (the “Designated Agent”) by

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email notice (or other method mutually agreed to by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1.  The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Designated Agent set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time.  The Placement Notice shall be effective unless and until (i) the Designated Agent declines in writing, by any means provided for under Section 13, to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice in its sole discretion or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 12.  The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Designated Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2.  It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agents will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Designated Agent and the Designated Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein.  In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

3.Sale of Placement Shares by the Designated Agent.  Subject to the provisions of Section 5(a), the Designated Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice.  The Designated Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company and the other Agent no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Designated Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Designated Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales.  Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice and the terms of this Agreement, the Designated Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act Regulations, including sales made directly on or through the Exchange or any other existing trading market for the Common Stock, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or any other method permitted by law.  “Trading Day” means any day on which Common Stock is traded on the Exchange.

4.Suspension of Sales.  The Company or the Designated Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged

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by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such Suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice.  While a Suspension is in effect, any obligation under Sections 7(l), 7(m), and 7(n) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agents, shall be waived.  Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time. Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is in possession of material non-public information and the Company has made the Designated Agents aware that the Company is in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Designated Agent agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and (iii) the Agent shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

5.Sale and Delivery to the Designated Agent; Settlement.

(a)Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Designated Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Designated Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations, including applicable rules of the Exchange, to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice.  The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Designated Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Designated Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity (“Person”) if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Designated Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations, including applicable rules of the Exchange, to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Designated Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Designated Agent and the Company.

(b)Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”).  The Designated Agent shall notify the Company of each sale of Placement Shares no later than the opening of the Trading Day immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder.  The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Designated Agent, after deduction for (i) the Designated Agent’s

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commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any Governmental Authority (as defined below) in respect of such sales.

(c) Delivery of Placement Shares.  On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Designated Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Designated Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian system or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form.  On each Settlement Date, the Designated Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date.  The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date through no fault of the Designated Agent, then the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Designated Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses of its outside counsel), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (ii) pay to the Designated Agent any commission or discount to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

(d)Denominations; Registration.  Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Designated Agent may request in writing at least one full Business Day (as defined below) before the Settlement Date.  The certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Designated Agent in The City of New York not later than noon (New York time) on the Business Day prior to the Settlement Date.

(e)Limitations on Offering Size.  Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount and (B) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing.  Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing.  Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

(f)Sales Through Agents.  The Company agrees that any offer to sell Placement Shares, any solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares, or any sales of Placement Shares shall only be effected by or through an Agent, and only a single Agent, on any

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single given day and the Company shall in no event request that more than one Agent offer or sell Placement Shares on the same day.

6.Representations and Warranties of the Company.  The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with each of the Agents that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below) unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies a different time:

(a)Registration Statement and Prospectus.  The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the applicable conditions set forth in Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B) under the Securities Act.  The Registration Statement has been or will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company.  The Prospectus Supplement will name the Agents as the agents in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution.” The Company has not received, and has no notice of, any order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the Registration Statement, or threatening or instituting proceedings for that purpose.  The Registration Statement and the offer and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby meet the requirements of Rule 415 under the Securities Act and comply in all material respects with said Rule.  Any statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement have been so described or filed.  Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, and any such amendments or supplements and all documents incorporated by reference therein that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to Agents and their counsel.  The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the distribution of the Placement Shares, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering or sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below) to which the Agents have consented (which consent will not be unreasonably conditioned, withheld or delayed).  The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is currently listed on the Exchange under the trading symbol “TORC.”  The Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act, delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Exchange is contemplating terminating such registration or listing.  The Prospectus delivered to Agent for use in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement will be identical to the versions of the Prospectus created to be transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.  To the Company’s knowledge, it is in compliance with all applicable listing requirements of the Exchange.  

(b)Accurate Disclosure.  Neither the Registration Statement nor any amendment thereto, at its effective time or at the Applicable Time contained, contains or will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.  As of the date thereof and at each Applicable Time, none of the Prospectus and any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, included, includes or will include

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an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement did not, and any further documents filed and incorporated by reference therein will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.  The representations and warranties in this subsection shall not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus made in reliance upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by the Agents expressly for use therein.  For purposes of this Agreement, the only information so furnished are the statements set forth in the seventh and eighth paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus (collectively, the “Agent Information”).

(c)Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses.  No Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as of its issue date or as of each Applicable Time, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any incorporated document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified.

(d)Company Not Ineligible Issuer.  The Company was not and is not an ineligible issuer as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act at the times specified in Rules 164 and 433 under the Securities Act in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares.

(e)Emerging Growth Company Status.  From the time of the initial filing of the Company’s first registration statement with the Commission through the date hereof, the Company has been and is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

(f)Independent Accountants.  KPMG LLP (the “Accountant”), whose report on the consolidated financial statements of the Company is filed with the Commission as part of the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission and incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, are and, during the periods covered by their report, were an independent public accountants with respect to the Company as required by the Securities Act, the Securities Act Regulations and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board.

(g)Financial Statements.  The consolidated financial statements of the Company included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, together with the related schedules and notes, present fairly, in all material respects, the consolidated financial position of the Company and the Subsidiaries (as defined below) as of the dates indicated and the consolidated results of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company for the periods specified (subject to normal year-end adjustments with respect to unaudited interim financial statements); said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved except, in the case of unaudited financial statements, subject to normal year-end audit adjustments and the exclusion of certain footnotes as permitted by the applicable rules of the

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Commission.  The supporting schedules, if any, present fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein.  The selected financial data and the summary financial information included in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, present fairly, in all material respects, the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements included therein.  Except as included therein, no historical or pro forma financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus under the Securities Act or the Securities Act Regulations.  The Company and the Subsidiaries do not have any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent (including any off-balance sheet obligations), not described in the Registration Statement (excluding the exhibits thereto), and the Prospectus; and all disclosures contained or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus and the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any, regarding “non-GAAP financial measures” (as such term is defined by the rules and regulations of the Commission) comply with Regulation G of the Exchange Act and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, to the extent applicable. The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.  

(h)No Material Adverse Effect in Business.  Except as otherwise stated therein, since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or the Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses, if any (including any document deemed incorporated by reference therein), there has not been (i) any Material Adverse Effect in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business operations or business prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business (a “Material Adverse Effect”), (ii) any transactions entered into by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, other than those in the ordinary course of business, which are material with respect to the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, and (iii)  any dividend or distribution of any kind declared, paid or made by the Company on any class of its capital stock of the Company or any Subsidiary, other than in case of clause (iii) above in the ordinary course of business

(i)Good Standing of the Company.  The Company has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the State of Delaware and has corporate power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and to enter into and perform its obligations under this Agreement; and the Company is duly qualified as a foreign corporation to transact business and is in good standing in each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure so to qualify or to be in good standing would not result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(j)Good Standing of Subsidiaries.  Each “significant subsidiary” of the Company (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X) (each, a “Subsidiary” and, collectively, the “Subsidiaries”) has been duly organized and is validly existing in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or organization, has corporate or similar

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power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except where the failure to so qualify or to be in good standing would not result in a Material Adverse Effect.  Except as otherwise disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, all of the issued and outstanding capital stock of each Subsidiary has been duly authorized and validly issued, is fully paid and non‑assessable and is owned by the Company, directly or through subsidiaries, free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance, claim or equity.  None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of any Subsidiary were issued in violation of the preemptive or similar rights of any securityholder of such Subsidiary.  The only subsidiaries of the Company are the subsidiaries listed on Exhibit 21 to the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission.

(k)Capitalization.  The authorized, issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company are as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as of the dates referred to therein (except for subsequent issuances, if any, pursuant to this Agreement, pursuant to reservations, agreements or employee benefit plans referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or pursuant to the exercise of convertible securities or options referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus).  The outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly authorized and validly issued and are fully paid and non‑assessable.  None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company were issued in violation of the preemptive or other similar rights of any securityholder of the Company.

(l)Authorization; Enforceability.  The Company has full legal right, power and authority to enter into this Agreement and perform the transactions contemplated hereby.  This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a legal, valid and binding agreement of the Company enforceable in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that (i) enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or similar laws affecting creditors’ rights generally and by general equitable principles and (ii) the indemnification and contribution provisions of Section 10 hereof may be limited by federal and state securities laws and public policy considerations in respect thereof.

(m)Authorization and Description of Securities.  The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered pursuant to the terms approved by the board of directors of the Company or a duly authorized committee thereof, or a duly authorized executive committee, against payment therefor as provided herein, will be duly and validly authorized and issued and fully paid and non‑assessable; and the issuance of the Placement Shares will not be subject to the preemptive or other similar rights of any securityholder of the Company that have not been duly and validly waived in writing.  The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to all statements relating thereto contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and such description conforms, in all material respects, to the rights set forth in the instruments defining the same.  No holder of Placement Shares will be subject to personal liability by reason of being such a holder.

(n)Registration Rights.  There are no persons with registration rights or other similar rights to have any securities registered for sale pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered for sale or sold by the Company under the Securities Act pursuant to this

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Agreement, other than those rights that have been disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and have been waived.

(o)Absence of Violations, Defaults and Conflicts.  Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its charter, by-laws or similar organizational document, (ii) in default in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, covenant or condition contained in any contract, indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan or credit agreement, note, lease or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which it or any of them may be bound or to which any of the properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary is subject (collectively, “Agreements and Instruments”), except for such defaults that would not, singly or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect, or (iii) in violation of any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any Governmental Authority, except for such violations that would not, singly or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect.  The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated herein and in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (including the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and the use of the proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares as described therein under the caption “Use of Proceeds”) and compliance by the Company with its obligations hereunder have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action and do not and will not, whether with or without the giving of notice or passage of time or both, conflict with or constitute a breach of, or default or Repayment Event (as defined below) under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any properties or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary pursuant to, the Agreements and Instruments (except for such conflicts, breaches, defaults or Repayment Events or liens, charges or encumbrances that would not, singly or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect), nor will such action result in any violation of the provisions of the charter, by-laws or similar organizational document of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or, except as would not result in a Material Adverse Effect, any law, statute, rule, regulation, judgment, order, writ or decree of any Governmental Authority.  As used herein, a “Repayment Event” means any event or condition which gives the holder of any note, debenture or other evidence of indebtedness (or any person acting on such holder’s behalf) the right to require the repurchase, redemption or repayment of all or a portion of such indebtedness by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries.

(p)Absence of Labor Dispute.  No labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or any Subsidiary’s principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, which, in either case, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(q)Absence of Proceedings.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there is no action, suit, proceeding, inquiry or investigation before or brought by any Governmental Authority now pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened, against or affecting the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, which would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or which might materially and adversely affect their respective properties or assets or the consummation of the transactions contemplated in this Agreement or the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder; and the aggregate of all pending legal or governmental proceedings to which the Company or any such

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Subsidiary is a party or of which any of their respective properties or assets is the subject which are not described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, including ordinary routine litigation incidental to the business, would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(r)Accuracy of Exhibits.  There are no contracts or documents which are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been so described and filed as required.

(s)Absence of Further Requirements.  No filing with, or authorization, approval, consent, license, order, registration, qualification or decree of, any Governmental Authority is necessary or required for the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, in connection with the offering, issuance or sale of the Placement Shares hereunder or the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except such as have been already obtained or as may be required under the Securities Act, the Securities Act Regulations, the rules of the Exchange, state securities laws or the rules of Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”).

(t)Possession of Licenses and Permits.  The Company and its Subsidiaries possess such permits, licenses, approvals, consents and other authorizations (collectively, “Governmental Licenses”) issued by the appropriate Governmental Authorities necessary to conduct the business now operated by them, including, without limitation, all such Governmental Licenses required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (the “FDA”), except where the failure so to possess would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected result in a Material Adverse Effect.  The Company and its Subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms and conditions of all Governmental Licenses, except where the failure so to comply would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.  All of the Governmental Licenses are valid and in full force and effect, except when the invalidity of such Governmental Licenses or the failure of such Governmental Licenses to be in full force and effect would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.  Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Governmental Licenses which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(u)Studies, Tests and Trials.  The pre-clinical and clinical studies (as applicable) conducted by, on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or its Subsidiaries, or in which the Company or its Subsidiaries or their product candidates participated, including, to the knowledge of the Company, such studies conducted by Novartis International Pharmaceutical Ltd. or its affiliates, were and, if still pending are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with standard medical and scientific research procedures and with all applicable local, state and federal laws, rules and regulations, including, without limitation, the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and its applicable implementing regulations at 21 C.F.R. Parts 50, 54, 56, 58 and 312; the descriptions of the results of such studies contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects and fairly present the data derived from such studies; except to the extent disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company is not aware of any studies, the results of which are inconsistent with or otherwise call into question the study results described or referred to in the

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Registration Statement or the Prospectus; and neither the FDA nor any applicable foreign regulatory agency has commenced, or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened to initiate, any action to place a hold order on, or otherwise terminate, delay or suspend, any proposed or ongoing pre-clinical studies or clinical investigations conducted or proposed to be conducted by or on behalf of the Company.  

(v)Health Care Laws. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries has operated and currently is in compliance in all material respects with all applicable Health Care Laws (as defined below), including, without limitation, the rules and regulations of the FDA, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Office for Civil Rights, the Department of Justice or any other governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its properties, and has not engaged in activities which are, as applicable, cause for false claims liability, civil penalties, or mandatory or permissive exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid, or any other state or federal health care program.  For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” shall mean the federal Anti-kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)), the Physician Payment Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), the civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.), the criminal False Claims Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), all criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287, and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (42 U.S.C. § 1320d et seq.) (“HIPAA”), the exclusion laws (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7), the civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.), the patient privacy, data security and breach notification provisions under HIPAA, the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.), Medicare (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act), Medicaid (Title XIX of the Social Security Act), the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws, and any other similar local, state or federal law and regulations.  The Company has not received any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence, communication or notice from the FDA or any other governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Health Care Laws applicable to the Company.  The Company is not a party to nor has any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreements, deferred prosecution agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, plans of correction or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority.  Neither the Company, its Subsidiaries nor any of their respective employees, officers, directors or, to the Company’s knowledge, consultants has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any U.S. state or federal health care program or human clinical research or, to the Company’s knowledge, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion.  

(w)Market Capitalization.  At the time the Registration Statement was or will be originally declared effective, and at the time the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K was filed with the Commission, the Company met or will meet the then applicable requirements for the use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act, including, but not limited to, General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3. The aggregate market value of the outstanding voting and non-voting common equity (as defined in Securities Act Rule 405) of the Company held by persons other than affiliates of the Company (pursuant to Securities Act Rule 144, those that

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directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with, the Company) (the “Non-Affiliate Shares”), was equal to or greater than $75.0 million (calculated by multiplying (x) the highest price at which the common equity of the Company closed on the Exchange within 60 days of the date of this Agreement times (y) the number of Non-Affiliate Shares). The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously and if it has been a shell company at any time previously, has filed current Form 10 information (as defined in Instruction I.B.6 of Form S-3) with the Commission at least 12 calendar months previously reflecting its status as an entity that is not a shell company.

(x)Title to Property.  The Company and its Subsidiaries do not own any real property and have good title to all other properties owned by them, free and clear of all mortgages, pledges, liens, security interests, claims, restrictions or encumbrances of any kind except such as (i) are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or (ii) would not, singly or in the aggregate, materially affect the value of such property and do not interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries; and all of the leases and subleases material to the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries and under which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries holds properties described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, are in full force and effect, and neither the Company nor any such Subsidiary has received any notice of any material claim of any sort that has been asserted by anyone adverse to the rights of the Company or any Subsidiary under any of the leases or subleases mentioned above, or affecting or questioning the rights of the Company or such Subsidiary to the continued possession of the leased or subleased premises under any such lease or sublease.

(y)Possession of Intellectual Property.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, the Company and its Subsidiaries own or possess, or can acquire on reasonable terms, adequate patents, patent rights, licenses, approvals, inventions, copyrights, domain names, technology, trade secrets, know‑how (including unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures), trademarks, service marks, trade names or other intellectual property and similar rights, including registrations and applications for registration thereof (collectively, “Intellectual Property Rights”) necessary or material to the conduct of the business now conducted or proposed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus to be conducted by them, and the failure to own, possess or acquire such Intellectual Property Rights and the expected expiration of any such Intellectual Property Rights would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.  To the Company’s knowledge, none of the patents and patent applications owned or licensed by the Company or its Subsidiaries is invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part.  To the Company’s knowledge, none of the Intellectual Property Rights owned or licensed by the Company or its Subsidiaries, other than patents and patent applications, are invalid or unenforceable, in whole or in part.  To the knowledge of the Company, there are no unreleased liens or security interests which have been filed against any of the Intellectual Property Rights owned or licensed by the Company.  Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) the Company is not obligated to pay a material royalty, grant a license or provide other material consideration to any third party in connection with the Intellectual Property Rights owned by or licensed to the Company; (ii) to the Company’s knowledge, there are no rights of third parties to any of the Intellectual Property Rights owned by or licensed to the Company or its Subsidiaries, in any field of use, other than

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the respective licensor to the Company of such Intellectual Property Rights; (iii) to the Co